Next Article in Journal
Antimicrobial Protein Candidates from the Thermophilic Geobacillus sp. Strain ZGt-1: Production, Proteomics, and Bioinformatics Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
Human TRIB2 Oscillates during the Cell Cycle and Promotes Ubiquitination and Degradation of CDC25C
Previous Article in Journal
Inflammatory Cutaneous Diseases in Renal Transplant Recipients
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Role of α1-Adrenoceptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Prostate and Other Cancers
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1357; doi:10.3390/ijms17081357

Tamoxifen Resistance: Emerging Molecular Targets

1
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin 10126, Italy
2
Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá 11001000, Colombia
3
Doctoral Program in Biomedical Sciences, Universidad del Rosario, Bogotá 11001000, Colombia
4
Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge 14183, Sweden
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 16 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Molecular Oncology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2850 KB, uploaded 23 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

17β-Estradiol (E2) plays a pivotal role in the development and progression of breast cancer. As a result, blockade of the E2 signal through either tamoxifen (TAM) or aromatase inhibitors is an important therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer. However, resistance to TAM is the major obstacle in endocrine therapy. This resistance occurs either de novo or is acquired after an initial beneficial response. The underlying mechanisms for TAM resistance are probably multifactorial and remain largely unknown. Considering that breast cancer is a very heterogeneous disease and patients respond differently to treatment, the molecular analysis of TAM’s biological activity could provide the necessary framework to understand the complex effects of this drug in target cells. Moreover, this could explain, at least in part, the development of resistance and indicate an optimal therapeutic option. This review highlights the implications of TAM in breast cancer as well as the role of receptors/signal pathways recently suggested to be involved in the development of TAM resistance. G protein—coupled estrogen receptor, Androgen Receptor and Hedgehog signaling pathways are emerging as novel therapeutic targets and prognostic indicators for breast cancer, based on their ability to mediate estrogenic signaling in ERα-positive or -negative breast cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: tamoxifen; breast cancer; G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER); estrogen receptors (ERs); androgen receptor (AR); Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway; endocrine resistance tamoxifen; breast cancer; G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER); estrogen receptors (ERs); androgen receptor (AR); Hedgehog (HH) signaling pathway; endocrine resistance
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rondón-Lagos, M.; Villegas, V.E.; Rangel, N.; Sánchez, M.C.; Zaphiropoulos, P.G. Tamoxifen Resistance: Emerging Molecular Targets. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1357.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top