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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1352; doi:10.3390/ijms17081352

Plant Polyphenols as Chemopreventive Agents for Lung Cancer

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, P.O. Box 550, Truro, NS B2N 5E3, Canada
2
Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
3
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, P.O. Box 15000, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rosa M. Lamuela-Raventos
Received: 3 July 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Mechanism of Action of Food Components in Disease Prevention)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1400 KB, uploaded 19 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Lung cancer may be prevented by a diet rich in fruits and vegetables as they are enriched with dietary antioxidant polyphenols, such as flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, lignans, stilbenes, and phenolic acids. Dietary polyphenols exert a wide range of beneficial biological functions beyond their antioxidative properties and are involved in regulation of cell survival pathways leading to anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic functions. There are sufficient evidence from in vitro, in vivo, and epidemiological studies to suggest that the dietary intervention of polyphenols in cancer prevention, including the chemopreventive ability of dietary polyphenols, act against lung carcinogens. Cohort and epidemiological studies in selected risk populations have evaluated clinical effects of polyphenols. Polyphenols have demonstrated three major actions: antioxidative activity, regulation of phase I and II enzymes, and regulation of cell survival pathways against lung carcinogenesis. They have also shown an inverse association of lung cancer occurrences among high risk populations who consumed considerable amounts of fruits and vegetables in their daily diet. In in vitro cell culture experimental models, polyphenols bind with electrophilic metabolites from carcinogens, inactivate cellular oxygen radicals, prevent membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA oxidative damage, and adduct formation. Further, polyphenols enhance the detoxifying enzymes such as the phase II enzymes, glutathione transferases and glucuronosyl transferases. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyphenols; lung cancer; carcinogenesis; chemoprevention; diet; fruits and vegetables polyphenols; lung cancer; carcinogenesis; chemoprevention; diet; fruits and vegetables
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Amararathna, M.; Johnston, M.R.; Rupasinghe, H.P.V. Plant Polyphenols as Chemopreventive Agents for Lung Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1352.

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