Theophylline-Based KMUP-1 Improves Steatohepatitis via MMP-9/IL-10 and Lipolysis via HSL/p-HSL in Obese Mice
AbstractKMUP-1 (7-[2-[4-(2-chlorobenzene)piperazinyl]ethyl]-1,3-dimethylxanthine) has been reported to cause hepatic fat loss. However, the action mechanisms of KMUP-1 in obesity-induced steatohepatitis remains unclear. This study elucidated the steatohepatitis via matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP-9) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and related lipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) by KMUP-1. KMUP-1 on steatohepatitis-associated HSL/p-HSL/ATGL/MMP-9/TNFα/interleukin-10 (IL-10) and infiltration of M1/M2 macrophages in obese mice were examined. KMUP-1 was administered by oral gavage from weeks 1–14 in high-fat diet (HFD)-supplemented C57BL/6J male mice (protection group) and from weeks 8–14, for 6 weeks, in HFD-induced obese mice (treatment group). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of tissues, oil globules number and size, infiltration and switching of M1/M2 macrophages were measured to determine the effects on livers. IL-10 and MMP-9 proteins were explored to determine the effects of KMUP-1 on M1/M2 macrophage polarization in HFD-induced steatohepatitis. Long-term administration of KMUP-1 reversed HFD-fed mice increased in body weight, sGOT/sGPT, triglyceride (TG) and glucose. Additionally, KMUP-1 decreased MMP-9 and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased HSL/p-HSL and IL-10 in HFD mice livers. In conclusion, KMUP-1, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDEI), was shown to reduce lipid accumulation in liver tissues, suggesting that it could be able to prevent or treat steatohepatitis induced by HFD. View Full-Text
Share & Cite This Article
Wu, B.-N.; Kuo, K.-K.; Chen, Y.-H.; Chang, C.-T.; Huang, H.-T.; Chai, C.-Y.; Dai, Z.-K.; Chen, I.-J. Theophylline-Based KMUP-1 Improves Steatohepatitis via MMP-9/IL-10 and Lipolysis via HSL/p-HSL in Obese Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1345.
Wu B-N, Kuo K-K, Chen Y-H, Chang C-T, Huang H-T, Chai C-Y, Dai Z-K, Chen I-J. Theophylline-Based KMUP-1 Improves Steatohepatitis via MMP-9/IL-10 and Lipolysis via HSL/p-HSL in Obese Mice. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(8):1345.Chicago/Turabian Style
Wu, Bin-Nan; Kuo, Kung-Kai; Chen, Yu-Hsun; Chang, Chain-Ting; Huang, Hung-Tu; Chai, Chee-Yin; Dai, Zen-Kong; Chen, Ing-Jun. 2016. "Theophylline-Based KMUP-1 Improves Steatohepatitis via MMP-9/IL-10 and Lipolysis via HSL/p-HSL in Obese Mice." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 8: 1345.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.