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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1319; doi:10.3390/ijms17081319

Immunosuppressive Effect of Litsea cubeba L. Essential Oil on Dendritic Cell and Contact Hypersensitivity Responses

1
Department of Cosmeceutics, College of Biopharmaceutical and Food Sciences, China Medical University, No. 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
2
Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, College of Biopharmaceutical and Food Sciences, China Medical University, No. 91, Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
3
Institute of Medical Technology, College of Life Science, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paula Andrade
Received: 27 May 2016 / Revised: 22 July 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 12 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2037 KB, uploaded 12 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Litsea cubeba L., also named as Makauy, is a traditional herb and has been used as cooking condiment or tea brewing to treat diseases for aborigines. The present study was undertaken to explore the chemical compositions of the fruit essential oil of L. cubeba (LCEO) and the immunomodulatory effect of LCEO on dendritic cells and mice. The LCEO was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with direct injection (DI/GC) or headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME/GC). In total, 56 components were identified, of which 48 were detected by DI/GC and 49 were detected by HS-SPME/GC. The principal compounds were citral (neral and geranial). An immunosuppressive activity of LCEO was investigated with bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) which have a critical role to trigger the adaptive immunity. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of LCEO on immune response was elucidated by performing the contact hypersensitivity (CHS) responses in mice. Our results clearly showed that LCEO decreases the production of TNF-α and cytokine IL-12 in a dose-dependent manner in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated DCs. CHS response and the infiltrative T cells were inhibited in the tested ears of the mice co-treated with LCEO. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the LCEO mainly containing citral exhibits an immunosuppressive effect on DCs and mice, indicating that LCEO can potentially be applied in the treatment of CHS, inflammatory diseases, and autoimmune diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: Litsea cubeba; essential oil; dendritic cell; immunosuppressive; citral Litsea cubeba; essential oil; dendritic cell; immunosuppressive; citral
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Chen, H.-C.; Chang, W.-T.; Hseu, Y.-C.; Chen, H.-Y.; Chuang, C.H.; Lin, C.-C.; Lee, M.-S.; Lin, M.-K. Immunosuppressive Effect of Litsea cubeba L. Essential Oil on Dendritic Cell and Contact Hypersensitivity Responses. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1319.

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