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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1318; doi:10.3390/ijms17081318

Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women

1
Centro Cardiologico Monzino, IRCCS, Milan I-20138, Italy
2
Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow 125315, Russia
3
Institute for Atherosclerosis Research, Skolkovo Innovative Center, Moscow 143025, Russia
4
Russian Cardiology Research and Production Complex, Moscow 121552, Russia
5
Faculty of Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
6
School of Medicine, University of Western Sydney, Campbelltown, NSW 2560, Australia
7
Department of Biophysics, Biological Faculty, Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shaker A. Mousa
Received: 31 March 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 3 August 2016 / Published: 11 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vascular Biology and Therapeutics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [472 KB, uploaded 11 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6) were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT) were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020); low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040) and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS); high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038); triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS) and by 7.1% in placebo recipients (NS). The differences between lipid changes in the isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation and placebo recipients did not reach statistical significance (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the mean cIMT progression was significantly lower in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients as compared to the placebo group (6 μm, or <1%, versus 100 μm, or 13%; p < 0.001 for the difference). The growth of existing atherosclerotic plaques in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients was inhibited by 1.5-fold (27% versus 41% in the placebo group). The obtained results demonstrate that the use of isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation in postmenopausal women may suppress the formation of new atherosclerotic lesions and reduce the progression of existing ones, thus promising new drug for anti-atherosclerotic therapy. Nevertheless, further studies are required to confirm these findings. View Full-Text
Keywords: atherosclerosis; menopause; herbal preparation; prevention; intimal medial thickens; isoflavonoids; phytoestrogens atherosclerosis; menopause; herbal preparation; prevention; intimal medial thickens; isoflavonoids; phytoestrogens
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MDPI and ACS Style

Myasoedova, V.A.; Kirichenko, T.V.; Melnichenko, A.A.; Orekhova, V.A.; Ravani, A.; Poggio, P.; Sobenin, I.A.; Bobryshev, Y.V.; Orekhov, A.N. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1318.

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