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Retraction published on 28 July 2017, see Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(8), 1642.

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1289; doi:10.3390/ijms17081289

Advanced Glycation End-Products Enhance Lung Cancer Cell Invasion and Migration

1
Department of Respiratory Therapy, China Medical University, 40402 Taichung City, Taiwan
2
Department of Internal Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, 40402 Taichung City, Taiwan
3
Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, 40402 Taichung City, Taiwan
4
Department of Health and Nutrition Biotechnology, Asia University, 41354 Taichung City, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 2 August 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Molecular Oncology)
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Abstract

Effects of carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pentosidine, two advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), upon invasion and migration in A549 and Calu-6 cells, two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines were examined. CML or pentosidine at 1, 2, 4, 8 or 16 μmol/L were added into cells. Proliferation, invasion and migration were measured. CML or pentosidine at 4–16 μmol/L promoted invasion and migration in both cell lines, and increased the production of reactive oxygen species, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 and transforming growth factor-β1. CML or pentosidine at 2–16 μmol/L up-regulated the protein expression of AGE receptor, p47phox, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and fibronectin in test NSCLC cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 protein expression in A549 and Calu-6 cells was increased by CML or pentosidine at 4–16 μmol/L. These two AGEs at 2–16 μmol/L enhanced nuclear factor κ-B (NF-κ B) p65 protein expression and p38 phosphorylation in A549 cells. However, CML or pentosidine at 4–16 μmol/L up-regulated NF-κB p65 and p-p38 protein expression in Calu-6 cells. These findings suggest that CML and pentosidine, by promoting the invasion, migration and production of associated factors, benefit NSCLC metastasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: CML; pentosidine; non-small cell lung cancer; migration; invasion CML; pentosidine; non-small cell lung cancer; migration; invasion
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Hsia, T.-C.; Yin, M.-C.; Mong, M.-C. Advanced Glycation End-Products Enhance Lung Cancer Cell Invasion and Migration. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1289.

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