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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1273; doi:10.3390/ijms17081273

Coadjuvants in the Diabetic Complications: Nutraceuticals and Drugs with Pleiotropic Effects

1
Pharmaceutical Sciences Graduate Program, Vila Velha University (UVV), Av. Comissario Jose Dantas Melo 21, Boa Vista, 29102-920 Vila Velha, Brazil
2
Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology (IFES), 29106-010 Vila Velha, Brazil
3
Burn Treatment Center, Children State Hospital, 29056-030 Vitoria, Brazil
4
Department of Pathophysiology, Montes Claros State University, 39401-089, Montes Claros, Brazil
5
Laboratory of Translational Physiology, Federal University of Espirito Santo (Ufes), 29047-100 Vitoria, Brazil
6
Division of Nephrology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 4A6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lu Cai
Received: 5 July 2016 / Revised: 27 July 2016 / Accepted: 29 July 2016 / Published: 5 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diabetic Complications: Pathophysiology, Mechanisms, and Therapies)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [702 KB, uploaded 5 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Because diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multifactorial metabolic disease, its prevention and treatment has been a constant challenge for basic and clinical investigators focused on translating their discoveries into clinical treatment of this complex disorder. In this review, we highlight recent experimental and clinical evidences of potential coadjuvants in the management of DM, such as polyphenols (quercetin, resveratrol and silymarin), cultured probiotic microorganisms and drugs acting through direct/indirect or pleiotropic effects on glycemic control in DM. Among several options, we highlight new promising therapeutic coadjuvants, including chemical scavengers, the probiotic kefir and the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, which besides the reduction of hyperglycemia and ameliorate insulin resistance, they reduce oxidative stress and improve endothelial dysfunction in the systemic vascular circulation. In the near future, experimental studies are expected to clear the intracellular pathways involving coadjuvants. The design of clinical trials may also contribute to new strategies with coadjuvants against the harmful effects of diabetic complications. View Full-Text
Keywords: diabetes; quercetin; polyphenols; resveratrol; silymarin; kefir; probiotic; sildenafil; phosphodiesterase inhibitors; antioxidants diabetes; quercetin; polyphenols; resveratrol; silymarin; kefir; probiotic; sildenafil; phosphodiesterase inhibitors; antioxidants
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pereira, T.M.C.; Pimenta, F.S.; Porto, M.L.; Baldo, M.P.; Campagnaro, B.P.; Gava, A.L.; Meyrelles, S.S.; Vasquez, E.C. Coadjuvants in the Diabetic Complications: Nutraceuticals and Drugs with Pleiotropic Effects. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1273.

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