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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1232; doi:10.3390/ijms17081232

Circulating Organ-Specific MicroRNAs Serve as Biomarkers in Organ-Specific Diseases: Implications for Organ Allo- and Xeno-Transplantation

1
Shenzhen Xenotransplantation Medical Engineering Research and Development Center, Shenzhen Second People’s Hospital, First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518039, China
2
Institute of Immunology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Organ Donation and Transplant Immunology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
3
Thomas E. Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA
4
Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Xenotransplantation, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Satohiro Masuda and William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 26 May 2016 / Revised: 25 July 2016 / Accepted: 26 July 2016 / Published: 1 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers in Drug-Induced Organ Injury)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1284 KB, uploaded 18 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Different cell types possess different miRNA expression profiles, and cell/tissue/organ-specific miRNAs (or profiles) indicate different diseases. Circulating miRNA is either actively secreted by living cells or passively released during cell death. Circulating cell/tissue/organ-specific miRNA may serve as a non-invasive biomarker for allo- or xeno-transplantation to monitor organ survival and immune rejection. In this review, we summarize the proof of concept that circulating organ-specific miRNAs serve as non-invasive biomarkers for a wide spectrum of clinical organ-specific manifestations such as liver-related disease, heart-related disease, kidney-related disease, and lung-related disease. Furthermore, we summarize how circulating organ-specific miRNAs may have advantages over conventional methods for monitoring immune rejection in organ transplantation. Finally, we discuss the implications and challenges of applying miRNA to monitor organ survival and immune rejection in allo- or xeno-transplantation. View Full-Text
Keywords: allotransplantation; biomarker; immune rejection; miRNA; circulating; xenotransplantation allotransplantation; biomarker; immune rejection; miRNA; circulating; xenotransplantation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhou, M.; Hara, H.; Dai, Y.; Mou, L.; Cooper, D.K.C.; Wu, C.; Cai, Z. Circulating Organ-Specific MicroRNAs Serve as Biomarkers in Organ-Specific Diseases: Implications for Organ Allo- and Xeno-Transplantation. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1232.

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