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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(8), 1182; doi:10.3390/ijms17081182

Serum Concentrations of Endothelin-1 and Matrix Metalloproteinases-2, -9 in Pre-Hypertensive and Hypertensive Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

1
Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Medical University-Pleven, 1 Kliment Ohridski Str., 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria
2
Division of Biology, Medical University-Pleven, 1 Kliment Ohridski Str., 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 7 July 2016 / Accepted: 13 July 2016 / Published: 1 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Liquid Biopsy for Clinical Application)
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Abstract

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is one of the most potent vasoconstrictors known to date. While its plasma or serum concentrations are elevated in some forms of experimental and human hypertension, this is not a consistent finding in all forms of hypertension. Matrix metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9), which degrade collagen type IV of the vascular basement membrane, are responsible for vascular remodeling, inflammation, and atherosclerotic complications, including in type 2 diabetes (T2D). In our study, we compared concentrations of ET-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in pre-hypertensive (PHTN) and hypertensive (HTN) T2D patients with those of healthy normotensive controls (N). ET-1, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were measured by ELISA. Concentrations of ET-1 in PHTN and N were very similar, while those in HTN were significantly higher. Concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in PHTN and HTN were also significantly higher compared to N. An interesting result in our study is that concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HTN were lower compared to PHTN. In conclusion, we showed that increased production of ET-1 in patients with T2D can lead to long-lasting increases in blood pressure (BP) and clinical manifestation of hypertension. We also demonstrated that increased levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive patients with T2D mainly reflect the early vascular changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover. View Full-Text
Keywords: pre-hypertension; type 2 diabetes; endothelin-1; matrix metalloproteinases-2; matrix metalloproteinases-9; vascular remodeling pre-hypertension; type 2 diabetes; endothelin-1; matrix metalloproteinases-2; matrix metalloproteinases-9; vascular remodeling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kostov, K.; Blazhev, A.; Atanasova, M.; Dimitrova, A. Serum Concentrations of Endothelin-1 and Matrix Metalloproteinases-2, -9 in Pre-Hypertensive and Hypertensive Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1182.

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