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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 999; doi:10.3390/ijms17070999

Pleiotropic Actions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) in Dysregulated Metabolic Homeostasis, Inflammation and Cancer: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives

1
Unit of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Human Pathology in Adulthood and Childhood ‘‘G. Barresi’’, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, Messina 98125, Italy
2
Unit of Diabetology and Endocrino-Metabolic Diseases, Hospital for Emergency Cannizzaro, Via Messina 829, Catania 95126, Italy
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Dentistry and Morphological and Functional Imaging, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, Messina 98100, Italy
4
Department of General Surgery and Medical Surgical Specialties, University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, Catania 95124, Italy
5
Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine—CRAMD (Research Centre of Motor Activity and Metabolic Rehabilitation in Diabetes), University of Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, Catania 95124, Italy
6
Independent Researcher, Catania 95124, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Béatrice Desvergne
Received: 11 May 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 21 June 2016 / Published: 24 June 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [212 KB, uploaded 24 June 2016]

Abstract

Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have demonstrated a lot of important effects in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism and in the correct functioning of adipose tissue. Recently, many studies have evaluated a possible effect of PPARs on tumor cells. The purpose of this review is to describe the effects of PPARs, their action and their future prospective; Methods: Narrative review aimed to synthesize cutting-edge evidence retrieved from searches of computerized databases; Results: PPARs play a key role in metabolic diseases, which include several cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, impaired immunity and the increasing risk of cancer; in particular, PPARα and PPARβ/δ mainly enable energy combustion, while PPARγ contributes to energy storage by enhancing adipogenesis; Conclusion: PPAR agonists could represent interesting types of molecules that can treat not only metabolic diseases, but also inflammation and cancer. Additional research is needed for the identification of high-affinity, high-specificity agonists for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and other metabolic diseases. Further studies are needed also to elucidate the role of PPARs in cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors; type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular diseases; dyslipidemia; metabolic syndrome; energy balance; obesity; thiazolinediones; cancer; fibrates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors; type 2 diabetes; cardiovascular diseases; dyslipidemia; metabolic syndrome; energy balance; obesity; thiazolinediones; cancer; fibrates
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Laganà, A.S.; Vitale, S.G.; Nigro, A.; Sofo, V.; Salmeri, F.M.; Rossetti, P.; Rapisarda, A.M.C.; La Vignera, S.; Condorelli, R.A.; Rizzo, G.; Buscema, M. Pleiotropic Actions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) in Dysregulated Metabolic Homeostasis, Inflammation and Cancer: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 999.

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