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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1192; doi:10.3390/ijms17071192

Nutritional Strategies for the Individualized Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Based on the Nutrient-Induced Insulin Output Ratio (NIOR)

Department of Biochemistry and Human Nutrition, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin 71-460, Poland
Department of Clinical and Molecular Biochemistry, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin 70-111, Poland
Liver and Internal Medicine Unit, Department of General, Transplant and Liver Surgery of the Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw 02-097, Poland
Department of Medical Biology, Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin 70-111, Poland
Department of Diabetology and Internal Diseases Pomeranian Medical University, Szczecin 72-010, Poland
Department of Human Nutrition, University of Warmia and Mazury, Olsztyn 10-718, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Amedeo Lonardo and Giovanni Targher
Received: 25 June 2016 / Revised: 9 July 2016 / Accepted: 11 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1323 KB, uploaded 22 July 2016]   |  


Nutrients play a fundamental role as regulators of the activity of enzymes involved in liver metabolism. In the general population, the action of nutrients may be affected by gene polymorphisms. Therefore, individualization of a diet for individuals with fatty liver seems to be a fundamental step in nutritional strategies. In this study, we tested the nutrient-induced insulin output ratio (NIOR), which is used to identify the correlation between the variants of genes and insulin resistance. We enrolled 171 patients, Caucasian men (n = 104) and women (n = 67), diagnosed with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). From the pool of genes sensitive to nutrient content, we selected genes characterized by a strong response to the NIOR. The polymorphisms included Adrenergic receptor (b3AR), Tumor necrosis factor (TNFα), Apolipoprotein C (Apo C III). Uncoupling Protein type I (UCP-1), Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ2 (PPAR-2) and Apolipoprotein E (APOEs). We performed three dietary interventions: a diet consistent with the results of genotyping (NIOR (+)); typical dietary recommendations for NAFLD (Cust (+)), and a diet opposite to the genotyping results (NIOR (−) and Cust (−)). We administered the diet for six months. The most beneficial changes were observed among fat-sensitive patients who were treated with the NIOR (+) diet. These changes included improvements in body mass and insulin sensitivity and normalization of blood lipids. In people sensitive to fat, the NIOR seems to be a useful tool for determining specific strategies for the treatment of NAFLD. View Full-Text
Keywords: NAFLD; NAFLD diet; insulin sensitivity; NIOR; reduction of body mass; fat reduction; liver fat NAFLD; NAFLD diet; insulin sensitivity; NIOR; reduction of body mass; fat reduction; liver fat

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Stachowska, E.; Ryterska, K.; Maciejewska, D.; Banaszczak, M.; Milkiewicz, P.; Milkiewicz, M.; Gutowska, I.; Ossowski, P.; Kaczorowska, M.; Jamioł-Milc, D.; Sabinicz, A.; Napierała, M.; Wądołowska, L.; Raszeja-Wyszomirska, J. Nutritional Strategies for the Individualized Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Based on the Nutrient-Induced Insulin Output Ratio (NIOR). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1192.

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