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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1159; doi:10.3390/ijms17071159

Argon Induces Protective Effects in Cardiomyocytes during the Second Window of Preconditioning

1
Department of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery, University Hospital RWTH, 52074 Aachen, Germany
2
Department of Anesthesiology, University Hospital RWTH, 52074 Aachen, Germany
3
Department of Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital RWTH, 52074 Aachen, Germany
These authors contributed equally in this manuscript.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Walter Herzog
Received: 7 June 2016 / Revised: 29 June 2016 / Accepted: 8 July 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

Increasing evidence indicates that argon has organoprotective properties. So far, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of argon preconditioning in cardiomyocytes within the first and second window of preconditioning. Primary isolated cardiomyocytes from neonatal rats were subjected to 50% argon for 1 h, and subsequently exposed to a sublethal dosage of hypoxia (<1% O2) for 5 h either within the first (0–3 h) or second window (24–48 h) of preconditioning. Subsequently, the cell viability and proliferation was measured. The argon-induced effects were assessed by evaluation of mRNA and protein expression after preconditioning. Argon preconditioning did not show any cardioprotective effects in the early window of preconditioning, whereas it leads to a significant increase of cell viability 24 h after preconditioning compared to untreated cells (p = 0.015) independent of proliferation. Argon-preconditioning significantly increased the mRNA expression of heat shock protein (HSP) B1 (HSP27) (p = 0.048), superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) (p = 0.001), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (p < 0.001) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) (p = 0.001). No difference was found with respect to activation of pro-survival kinases in the early and late window of preconditioning. The findings provide the first evidence of argon-induced effects on the survival of cardiomyocytes during the second window of preconditioning, which may be mediated through the induction of HSP27, SOD2, VEGF and iNOS. View Full-Text
Keywords: argon; late phase of preconditioning; cardioprotection; cardiomyocytes argon; late phase of preconditioning; cardioprotection; cardiomyocytes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mayer, B.; Soppert, J.; Kraemer, S.; Schemmel, S.; Beckers, C.; Bleilevens, C.; Rossaint, R.; Coburn, M.; Goetzenich, A.; Stoppe, C. Argon Induces Protective Effects in Cardiomyocytes during the Second Window of Preconditioning. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1159.

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