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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1156; doi:10.3390/ijms17071156

Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study

1
Dipartimento di Scienze Farmacologiche e Biomolecolari, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan 20133, Italy
2
Instituto Politecnico de Beja, Beja 7800-295, Portugal
3
Fakulty of Agriculture, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir 35100, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio Segura-Carretero and Ana Maria Gómez Caravaca
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 5 July 2016 / Accepted: 13 July 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Research of Functional and Nutraceutical Food)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1091 KB, uploaded 19 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) are dried grapes largely consumed as important source of nutrients and polyphenols. Several studies report health benefits of raisins, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity at gastric level of the hydro-alcoholic extracts, which are mostly used for food supplements preparation, was not reported until now. The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activity of five raisin extracts focusing on Interleukin (IL)-8 and Nuclear Factor (NF)-κB pathway. Raisin extracts were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and screened for their ability to inhibit Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α-induced IL-8 release and promoter activity in human gastric epithelial cells. Turkish variety significantly inhibited TNFα-induced IL-8 release, and the effect was due to the impairment of the corresponding promoter activity. Macroscopic evaluation showed the presence of seeds, absent in the other varieties; thus, hydro-alcoholic extracts from fruits and seeds were individually tested on IL-8 and NF-κB pathway. Seed extract inhibited IL-8 and NF-κB pathway, showing higher potency with respect to the fruit. Although the main effect was due to the presence of seeds, the fruit showed significant activity as well. Our data suggest that consumption of selected varieties of raisins could confer a beneficial effect against gastric inflammatory diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: raisins; gastric inflammation; HPLC-DAD; polyphenols; NF-κB; IL-8 raisins; gastric inflammation; HPLC-DAD; polyphenols; NF-κB; IL-8
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Di Lorenzo, C.; Sangiovanni, E.; Fumagalli, M.; Colombo, E.; Frigerio, G.; Colombo, F.; Peres de Sousa, L.; Altindişli, A.; Restani, P.; Dell’Agli, M. Evaluation of the Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells: A Comparative Study. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1156.

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