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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(7), 1030; doi:10.3390/ijms17071030

The Immunogenicity of Colorectal Cancer in Relation to Tumor Development and Treatment

1
Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands
2
Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, Bartholins Allé 6, Build. 1242, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: M. Rita I. Young
Received: 31 May 2016 / Revised: 21 June 2016 / Accepted: 23 June 2016 / Published: 29 June 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1078 KB, uploaded 29 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Although most cancer types have been viewed as immunologically silent until recently, it has become increasingly clear that the immune system plays key roles in the course of tumor development. Remarkable progress towards understanding cancer immunogenicity and tumor-immune system interactions has revealed important implications for the design of novel immune-based therapies. Natural immune responses, but also therapeutic interventions, can modulate the tumor phenotype due to selective outgrowth of resistant subtypes. This is the result of heterogeneity of tumors, with genetic instability as a driving force, and obviously changes the immunogenicity of tumors. In this review, we discuss the immunogenicity of colorectal cancer (CRC) in relation to tumor development and treatment. As most tumors, CRC activates the immune system in various ways, and is also capable of escaping recognition and elimination by the immune system. Tumor-immune system interactions underlie the balance between immune control and immune escape, and may differ in primary tumors, in the circulation, and in liver metastases of CRC. Since CRC immunogenicity varies between tumors and individuals, novel immune-based therapeutic strategies should not only anticipate the molecular profile, but also the immunological profile of a specific tumor. View Full-Text
Keywords: colorectal cancer; immune system; cancer immune interactions; cancer immunoediting; cancer treatment; tumor immunogenicity colorectal cancer; immune system; cancer immune interactions; cancer immunoediting; cancer treatment; tumor immunogenicity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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de Vries, N.L.; Swets, M.; Vahrmeijer, A.L.; Hokland, M.; Kuppen, P.J.K. The Immunogenicity of Colorectal Cancer in Relation to Tumor Development and Treatment. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1030.

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