Next Article in Journal
PNPLA3 Expression Is Related to Liver Steatosis in Morbidly Obese Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
Previous Article in Journal
In Vivo Delivery Systems for Therapeutic Genome Editing
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 629; doi:10.3390/ijms17050629

The Glutathione Derivative, GSH Monoethyl Ester, May Effectively Whiten Skin but GSH Does Not

1
Department of Dermatology, College of Medicine, Hallym University Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul 07441, Korea
2
Department of Dermatology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Korea
3
Department of Pharmacology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88 Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Terrence Piva
Received: 14 March 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 21 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1270 KB, uploaded 27 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Glutathione in its reduced form (GSH) is an antioxidant and also is involved in pheomelanin formation. Thus, it has been long believed that GSH has a skin whitening effect. However, its actual or direct effect is unproven. We evaluated the anti-melanogenic effects of GSH and its derivatives in vitro. We examined change of melanogenesis and its related proteins by GSH itself and its derivatives, including GSH monoethyl ester (GSH-MEE), GSH diethyl ester (GSH-DEE) and GSH monoisopropyl ester (GSH-MIPE) in Melan-A cells, Mel-Ab cells, and B16F10 cells. GSH and GSH-MEE did not display cytotoxic activity, but GSH-MIPE and GSH-DEE did. Intriguingly, GSH itself had no inhibitory effect on melanin production or intracellular tyrosinase activity. Rather, it was GSH-MEE and GSH-MIPE that profoundly reduced the amount of melanin and intracellular tyrosinase activity. Thus, GSH-MEE was selected as a suitable candidate skin-whitening agent and it did not alter melanogenesis-associated proteins such as microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2, but it did increase the amount of suggested pheomelanin and suggested pheomelanin/eumelanin ratio. GSH-MEE was effective for anti-melanogenesis, whereas GSH itself was not. GSH-MEE could be developed as a safe and efficient agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation skin disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: glutathione derivatives; glutathione monoethyl ester; melanogenesis; pheomelanin glutathione derivatives; glutathione monoethyl ester; melanogenesis; pheomelanin
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Chung, B.Y.; Choi, S.R.; Moon, I.J.; Park, C.W.; Kim, Y.-H.; Chang, S.E. The Glutathione Derivative, GSH Monoethyl Ester, May Effectively Whiten Skin but GSH Does Not. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 629.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top