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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(5), 623; doi:10.3390/ijms17050623

Peripheral Skin Temperature and Circadian Biological Clock in Shift Nurses after a Day off

1
Occupational Medicine, Department of Clinical and Molecular Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Tronto 10/A, Ancona 60126, Italy
2
Healthcare Workers Service, ASUR Area 2, Loreto Hospital, Via S. Francesco 1, Loreto 60025, Italy
3
Section of Occupational Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine and Systemic Diseases, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 78, Catania 95123, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Elma Baron
Received: 28 February 2016 / Revised: 16 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sleep, Circadian Rhythm and Skin)
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Abstract

The circadian biological clock is essentially based on the light/dark cycle. Some people working with shift schedules cannot adjust their sleep/wake cycle to the light/dark cycle, and this may result in alterations of the circadian biological clock. This study explored the circadian biological clock of shift and daytime nurses using non-invasive methods. Peripheral skin temperature, cortisol and melatonin levels in saliva, and Per2 expression in pubic hair follicle cells were investigated for 24 h after a day off. Significant differences were observed in peripheral skin temperature and cortisol levels between shift and daytime nurses. No differences in melatonin levels were obtained. Per2 maximum values were significantly different between the two groups. Shift nurses exhibited lower circadian variations compared to daytime nurses, and this may indicate an adjustment of the circadian biological clock to continuous shift schedules. Non-invasive procedures, such as peripheral skin temperature measurement, determination of cortisol and melatonin in saliva, and analysis of clock genes in hair follicle cells, may be effective approaches to extensively study the circadian clock in shift workers. View Full-Text
Keywords: skin temperature; circadian rhythm; cortisol; melatonin; PER2 gene; circadian clocks; light dark cycle; circadian dysregulation; occupational health; shift work skin temperature; circadian rhythm; cortisol; melatonin; PER2 gene; circadian clocks; light dark cycle; circadian dysregulation; occupational health; shift work
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bracci, M.; Ciarapica, V.; Copertaro, A.; Barbaresi, M.; Manzella, N.; Tomasetti, M.; Gaetani, S.; Monaco, F.; Amati, M.; Valentino, M.; Rapisarda, V.; Santarelli, L. Peripheral Skin Temperature and Circadian Biological Clock in Shift Nurses after a Day off. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 623.

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