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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 508; doi:10.3390/ijms17040508

UPLC-MS/MS-Based Profiling of Eicosanoids in RAW264.7 Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide

1
Department of Herbal Crop Research, National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA, Eumseong 369-873, Korea
2
Department of Applied Chemistry, The Institute of Natural Science, College of Applied Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701, Korea
3
Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Charles J. Malemud
Received: 3 March 2016 / Revised: 28 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 6 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
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Abstract

While both the pro- and anti-inflammatory effects of several eicosanoids have been widely studied, the degree of inflammation in cells that results from various eicosanoids has yet to be comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment on eicosanoid content in RAW264.7 cells. An Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)-based profiling method was used to analyze the eicosanoid contents of RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations. The profiling data were subjected to statistical analyses, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis. LPS treatment increased nitric oxide production and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6, in a concentration-dependent manner. In total, 79 eicosanoids were identified in the cells. RAW264.7 cells treated with different LPS concentrations were well differentiated in the PCA score plot. A heatmap was used to identify the eicosanoids that were up- or down-regulated according to the degree of inflammation and LPS concentration. Thirty-nine eicosanoids were upregulated and seven were down-regulated by LPS treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. Our novel UPLC-MS/MS technique can profile eicosanoids, and can evaluate the correlations between inflammation and eicosanoid metabolism. View Full-Text
Keywords: eicosanoids; inflammation; macrophage; lipopolysaccharide; UPLC-MS/MS eicosanoids; inflammation; macrophage; lipopolysaccharide; UPLC-MS/MS
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lee, J.W.; Mok, H.J.; Lee, D.-Y.; Park, S.C.; Ban, M.S.; Choi, J.; Park, C.G.; Ahn, Y.-S.; Kim, K.P.; Kim, H.D. UPLC-MS/MS-Based Profiling of Eicosanoids in RAW264.7 Cells Treated with Lipopolysaccharide. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 508.

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