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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 456; doi:10.3390/ijms17040456

Additive Effect of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Metabolic Syndrome-Related Endothelial Dysfunction in Hypertensive Patients

1
Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, University Magna Græcia, Catanzaro 88100, Italy
2
Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University Magna Græcia, Catanzaro 88100, Italy
3
Unit of Cardiovascular Diseases, Azienda Ospedaliera Mater Domini, Catanzaro 88100, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Amedeo Lonardo and Giovanni Targher
Received: 28 February 2016 / Revised: 16 March 2016 / Accepted: 22 March 2016 / Published: 26 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [553 KB, uploaded 26 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by an increased risk of incident diabetes and cardiovascular (CV) events, identifying insulin resistance (IR) and endothelial dysfunction as key elements. Moreover, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is bidirectionally linked with MS as a consequence of metabolic and inflammatory abnormalities. We addressed the question if the evolution in NAFLD might worsen endothelium-dependent vasodilating response in MS hypertensives. We recruited 272 Caucasian newly-diagnosed never-treated hypertensive outpatients divided into three groups according to the presence/absence of MS alone or in combination with NAFLD. MS and NAFLD were defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) and non-invasive fatty liver index, respectively. We determined IR by using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Vascular function, as forearm blood flow (FBF), was determined through strain-gauge plethysmography after intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside. MS+NAFLD+ group showed worse metabolic, inflammatory and vascular profiles compared with MS−NAFLD− and MS+NAFLD−. HOMA resulted in being the strongest predictor of FBF both in the MS+NAFLD− and in the MS+NAFLD+ groups, accounting for 20.5% and 33.2% of its variation, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that MS+NAFLD+ hypertensives show a worse endothelium-dependent vasodilation compared with MS+NAFLD−, allowing for consideration of NAFLD as an early marker of endothelial dysfunction in hypertensives. View Full-Text
Keywords: endothelial dysfunction; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular disease and risk; arterial hypertension endothelial dysfunction; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; metabolic syndrome; cardiovascular disease and risk; arterial hypertension
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MDPI and ACS Style

Perticone, M.; Cimellaro, A.; Maio, R.; Caroleo, B.; Sciacqua, A.; Sesti, G.; Perticone, F. Additive Effect of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease on Metabolic Syndrome-Related Endothelial Dysfunction in Hypertensive Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 456.

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