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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(4), 434; doi:10.3390/ijms17040434

Screening for Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Individuals at First Contact after HIV Diagnosis: The Experience of a Large Clinical Center in Northern Italy

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, University of Brescia and Brescia Spedali Civili General Hospital, Piazzale Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia, Italy
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Academic Editor: Susanna Esposito
Received: 9 February 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 16 March 2016 / Published: 24 March 2016
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Abstract

Neurocognitive disorders are emerging, probably underestimated, complications in HIV-infected people. The aim of the study was to assess neurocognitive profiles of newly detected HIV-infected patients. We performed an observational retrospective single-cohort study. Illiterates and patients with neurologic symptoms or previous psychiatric diagnosis were excluded. Neuropsychological profiles were assessed using a validated battery of neuropsychological tests. We included 206 patients; with males representing the majority of them (85%). Risk factors for HIV acquisition were unprotected sexual intercourse (homo/bisexual in 39.8% and heterosexual in 60.2%). Thirty-nine patients (18.9%) were previous injection drug users, while 41 (19.9%) were alcohol abusers. Mean education was 11.1 years (SD—standard deviation—3.7). A high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND, 47.1%) was present in HIV-infected patients: particularly, asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment (ANI) was found in 30.6%, mild neurocognitive disorder (MND) in 15% and HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in 1.5%. Male gender, low degree of education, AIDS diagnosis and gepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection were factors independently associated with HAND in a multivariable logistic regression model. Our data suggest that patient-specific factors and AIDS diagnosis have a certain kind of impact in HAND occurrence. A complete neuropsychological screening must be recommended in all patients at HIV-infection diagnosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV; neurocognitive disorders; HIV-associated dementia HIV; neurocognitive disorders; HIV-associated dementia
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Focà, E.; Magro, P.; Motta, D.; Compostella, S.; Casari, S.; Bonito, A.; Brianese, N.; Ferraresi, A.; Rodari, P.; Pezzoli, M.C.; Quiros-Roldan, E.; Castelli, F. Screening for Neurocognitive Impairment in HIV-Infected Individuals at First Contact after HIV Diagnosis: The Experience of a Large Clinical Center in Northern Italy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 434.

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