Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium
AbstractAlcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26–34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0–110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (<0.01 ng/g) in the majority of samples (79.1%). Only three (6%) women reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health. View Full-Text
- Supplementary File 1:
Supplementary (PDF, 745 KB)
Share & Cite This Article
Sanvisens, A.; Robert, N.; Hernández, J.M.; Zuluaga, P.; Farré, M.; Coroleu, W.; Serra, M.; Tor, J.; Muga, R. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 417.
Sanvisens A, Robert N, Hernández JM, Zuluaga P, Farré M, Coroleu W, Serra M, Tor J, Muga R. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(3):417.Chicago/Turabian Style
Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José M.; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert. 2016. "Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 3: 417.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.