Next Article in Journal
A RNA-DNA Hybrid Aptamer for Nanoparticle-Based Prostate Tumor Targeted Drug Delivery
Next Article in Special Issue
Mitochondrial Molecular Pathophysiology of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Proteomics Approach
Previous Article in Journal
Development and Characterization of Novel Microsatellite Markers for the Peach Fruit Moth Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) Using Next-Generation Sequencing
Previous Article in Special Issue
Bidirectional Relationships and Disconnects between NAFLD and Features of the Metabolic Syndrome
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 376; doi:10.3390/ijms17030376

Extracellular Vesicles: A New Frontier in Biomarker Discovery for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

1
Greg Brown Diabetes and Endocrine Laboratory, Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia
2
Liver Cell Biology Laboratory, Centenary Institute of Cancer Medicine and Cell Biology, Camperdown, NSW 2006, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Amedeo Lonardo and Giovanni Targher
Received: 24 February 2016 / Revised: 1 March 2016 / Accepted: 2 March 2016 / Published: 14 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Research 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [985 KB, uploaded 14 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

In recent years, the global burden of obesity and diabetes has seen a parallel rise in other metabolic complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This condition, once thought to be a benign accumulation of hepatic fat, is now recognized as a serious and prevalent disorder that is conducive to inflammation and fibrosis. Despite the rising incidence of NAFLD, there is currently no reliable method for its diagnosis or staging besides the highly invasive tissue biopsy. This limitation has resulted in the study of novel circulating markers as potential candidates, one of the most popular being extracellular vesicles (EVs). These submicron membrane-bound structures are secreted from stressed and activated cells, or are formed during apoptosis, and are known to be involved in intercellular communication. The cargo of EVs depends upon the parent cell and has been shown to be changed in disease, as is their abundance in the circulation. The role of EVs in immunity and epigenetic regulation is widely attested, and studies showing a correlation with disease severity have made these structures a favorable target for diagnostic as well as therapeutic purposes. This review will highlight the research that is available on EVs in the context of NAFLD, the current limitations, and projections for their future utility in a clinical setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomarkers; diagnosis; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; microvesicles; NAFLD; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); steatosis; steatohepatitis biomarkers; diagnosis; exosomes; extracellular vesicles; microvesicles; NAFLD; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH); steatosis; steatohepatitis
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ban, L.A.; Shackel, N.A.; McLennan, S.V. Extracellular Vesicles: A New Frontier in Biomarker Discovery for Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 376.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top