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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 309; doi:10.3390/ijms17030309

Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy—Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources

Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, DK-2400 Copenhagen, Denmark
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ying-ying Huang
Received: 21 December 2015 / Revised: 26 January 2016 / Accepted: 14 February 2016 / Published: 29 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Photodynamic Therapy)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4269 KB, uploaded 29 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Daylight-mediated photodynamic therapy (daylight PDT) is a simple and pain free treatment of actinic keratoses. Weather conditions may not always allow daylight PDT outdoors. We compared the spectrum of five different lamp candidates for indoor “daylight PDT” and investigated their ability to photobleach protoporphyrin IX (PpIX). Furthermore, we measured the amount of PpIX activating daylight available in a glass greenhouse, which can be an alternative when it is uncomfortable for patients to be outdoors. The lamps investigated were: halogen lamps (overhead and slide projector), white light-emitting diode (LED) lamp, red LED panel and lamps used for conventional PDT. Four of the five light sources were able to photobleach PpIX completely. For halogen light and the red LED lamp, 5000 lux could photobleach PpIX whereas 12,000 lux were needed for the white LED lamp. Furthermore, the greenhouse was suitable for daylight PDT since the effect of solar light is lowered only by 25%. In conclusion, we found four of the five light sources and the greenhouse usable for indoor daylight PDT. The greenhouse is beneficial when the weather outside is rainy or windy. Only insignificant ultraviolet B radiation (UVB) radiation passes through the greenhouse glass, so sun protection is not needed. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial daylight; photodynamic therapy; greenhouse; daylight PDT; methyl aminolevulinate artificial daylight; photodynamic therapy; greenhouse; daylight PDT; methyl aminolevulinate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lerche, C.M.; Heerfordt, I.M.; Heydenreich, J.; Wulf, H.C. Alternatives to Outdoor Daylight Illumination for Photodynamic Therapy—Use of Greenhouses and Artificial Light Sources. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 309.

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