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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(3), 292; doi:10.3390/ijms17030292

Silicon-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Promoted Bone Formation on Titanium Implants

3,* , 1,* and 1,*
Department of Orthopaedics, the First Affiliated Hospital, Orthopaedic Institute, Soochow University, 188 Shizi St, Suzhou 215006, China
Department of Orthopedics, the Affiliated Hospital of Jiangnan University, 200 Huihe Rd, Wuxi 214062, China
State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructures, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Rd, Shanghai 200050, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: John G. Hardy
Received: 15 January 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2016 / Accepted: 15 February 2016 / Published: 26 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Biomaterial Sciences)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1190 KB, uploaded 26 February 2016]   |  


While titanium (Ti) implants have been extensively used in orthopaedic and dental applications, the intrinsic bioinertness of untreated Ti surface usually results in insufficient osseointegration irrespective of the excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties of it. In this study, we prepared surface modified Ti substrates in which silicon (Si) was doped into the titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes on Ti surface using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) technology. Compared to TiO2 nanotubes and Ti alone, Si-doped TiO2 nanotubes significantly enhanced the expression of genes related to osteogenic differentiation, including Col-I, ALP, Runx2, OCN, and OPN, in mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and deposition of mineral matrix. In vivo, the pull-out mechanical tests after two weeks of implantation in rat femur showed that Si-doped TiO2 nanotubes improved implant fixation strength by 18% and 54% compared to TiO2-NT and Ti implants, respectively. Together, findings from this study indicate that Si-doped TiO2 nanotubes promoted the osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic cells and improved bone-Ti integration. Therefore, they may have considerable potential for the bioactive surface modification of Ti implants. View Full-Text
Keywords: silicon doping; titanium dioxide nanotubes; titanium; osteogenic differentiation; MC3T3-E1 cells; osseointegration silicon doping; titanium dioxide nanotubes; titanium; osteogenic differentiation; MC3T3-E1 cells; osseointegration

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Zhao, X.; Wang, T.; Qian, S.; Liu, X.; Sun, J.; Li, B. Silicon-Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes Promoted Bone Formation on Titanium Implants. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 292.

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