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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 199; doi:10.3390/ijms17020199

Role of Epigenetics in Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation: Implications for Treating Neurodegenerative Diseases

1
Field Neurosciences Institute laboratory for Restorative Neurology at Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859, USA
2
Program in Neuroscience, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859, USA
3
Department of Psychology, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859, USA
4
Field Neurosciences Institute, St. Mary’s of Michigan, Saginaw, MI 48604, USA
5
College of Medicine, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wilhelm Bloch
Received: 28 December 2015 / Revised: 17 January 2016 / Accepted: 27 January 2016 / Published: 2 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stem Cell Activation in Adult Organism)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2279 KB, uploaded 2 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

The main objectives of this review are to survey the current literature on the role of epigenetics in determining the fate of stem cells and to assess how this information can be used to enhance the treatment strategies for some neurodegenerative disorders, like Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Some of these epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and histone modifications, which have a direct impact on the way that genes are expressed in stem cells and how they drive these cells into a mature lineage. Understanding how the stem cells are behaving and giving rise to mature cells can be used to inform researchers on effective ways to design stem cell-based treatments. In this review article, the way in which the basic understanding of how manipulating this process can be utilized to treat certain neurological diseases will be presented. Different genetic factors and their epigenetic changes during reprogramming of stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have significant potential for enhancing the efficacy of cell replacement therapies. View Full-Text
Keywords: epigenetics; histone modifications; stem cells; neurodegenerative diseases; Huntington’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease; mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); neural stem cells (NSCs); induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) epigenetics; histone modifications; stem cells; neurodegenerative diseases; Huntington’s disease; Alzheimer’s disease; mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs); neural stem cells (NSCs); induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Srinageshwar, B.; Maiti, P.; Dunbar, G.L.; Rossignol, J. Role of Epigenetics in Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation: Implications for Treating Neurodegenerative Diseases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 199.

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