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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(2), 187; doi:10.3390/ijms17020187

Atrogin-1 Deficiency Leads to Myopathy and Heart Failure in Zebrafish

1
Molecular Cardiology, University of Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany
2
Department of Internal Medicine II, University of Ulm, 89081 Ulm, Germany
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35129 Padova, Italy
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jun Li and Li Lin
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 13 January 2016 / Accepted: 18 January 2016 / Published: 30 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Molecular Biology)
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Abstract

Orchestrated protein synthesis and degradation is fundamental for proper cell function. In muscle, impairment of proteostasis often leads to severe cellular defects finally interfering with contractile function. Here, we analyze for the first time the role of Atrogin-1, a muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase known to be involved in the regulation of protein degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome and the autophagy/lysosome systems, in the in vivo model system zebrafish (Danio rerio). We found that targeted inactivation of zebrafish Atrogin-1 leads to progressive impairment of heart and skeletal muscle function and disruption of muscle structure without affecting early cardiogenesis and skeletal muscle development. Autophagy is severely impaired in Atrogin-1-deficient zebrafish embryos resulting in the disturbance of the cytoarchitecture of cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle cells. These observations are consistent with molecular and ultrastructural findings in an Atrogin-1 knockout mouse and demonstrate that the zebrafish is a suitable vertebrate model to study the molecular mechanisms of Atrogin-1-mediated autophagic muscle pathologies and to screen for novel therapeutically active substances in high-throughput in vivo small compound screens (SCS). View Full-Text
Keywords: Atrogin-1; autophagy; zebrafish; myopathy; heart failure Atrogin-1; autophagy; zebrafish; myopathy; heart failure
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bühler, A.; Kustermann, M.; Bummer, T.; Rottbauer, W.; Sandri, M.; Just, S. Atrogin-1 Deficiency Leads to Myopathy and Heart Failure in Zebrafish. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 187.

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