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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2138; doi:10.3390/ijms17122138

Alterations of Epigenetic Regulators in Pancreatic Cancer and Their Clinical Implications

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
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Academic Editors: Srikumar Chellappan and Jaya Padmanabhan
Received: 15 November 2016 / Revised: 8 December 2016 / Accepted: 14 December 2016 / Published: 19 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pancreatic Disorders)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [815 KB, uploaded 19 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive human cancer types with a five-year survival less than 7%. Emerging evidence revealed that many genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer target epigenetic regulators. Some of these mutations are driver mutations in cancer development. Several most important mechanisms of epigenetic regulations include DNA methylation, histone modifications (methylation, acetylation, and ubiquitination), chromatin remodeling, and non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs). These modifications can alter chromatin structure and promoter accessibility, and thus lead to aberrant gene expression. However, exactly how these alterations affect epigenetic reprogramming in pancreatic cancer cells and in different stages of tumor development is still not clear. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge of epigenetic alterations in pancreatic cancer development and progression, and discusses the clinical applications of epigenetic regulators as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic alterations; epigenetic regulators; pancreatic neoplasms; pancreatic cancer; clinical implication genetic alterations; epigenetic regulators; pancreatic neoplasms; pancreatic cancer; clinical implication
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Silverman, B.R.; Shi, J. Alterations of Epigenetic Regulators in Pancreatic Cancer and Their Clinical Implications. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2138.

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