Next Article in Journal
A Possible Role of Intestinal Microbiota in the Pathogenesis of Ankylosing Spondylitis
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Estradiol on Neurotrophin Receptors in Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons: Relevance for Alzheimer’s Disease
Article Menu
Issue 12 (December) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2128; doi:10.3390/ijms17122128

Metabolomic Approaches to Explore Chemical Diversity of Human Breast-Milk, Formula Milk and Bovine Milk

1
Shanghai Institute for Pediatric Research, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092, China
2
Shanghai Key Laboratory of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 1665 Kongjiang Road, Shanghai 200092, China
3
Center for Translational Medicine, Six People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 600 Yishan Road, Shanghai 200233, China
4
Nutrition Research Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, Kannapolis, NC 28081, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Arráez-Román
Received: 24 October 2016 / Revised: 28 November 2016 / Accepted: 11 December 2016 / Published: 17 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [8570 KB, uploaded 17 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Although many studies have been conducted on the components present in human breast milk (HM), research on the differences of chemical metabolites between HM, bovine milk (BM) and formula milk (FM) is limited. This study was to explore the chemical diversity of HM, BM and FM by metabolomic approaches. GC-TOFMS and UPLC-QTOFMS were applied to investigate the metabolic compositions in 30 HM samples, 20 FM samples and 20 BM samples. Metabolite profiling identified that most of the non-esterified fatty acids, which reflected the hydrolysis of triglycerides, were much more abundant in HM than those in FM and BM, except for palmitic acid and stearic acid. The levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates were much higher in FM and BM than those in HM. Each type of milk also showed its unique composition of free amino acids and free carbohydrates. In conclusion, higher levels of non-esterified saturated fatty acids with aliphatic tails <16 carbons, monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids and lower levels of TCA intermediates are characteristic of HM, as compared with FM and BM. The content of non-esterified fatty acids may reflect the hydrolysis of triglycerides in different milk types. View Full-Text
Keywords: metabolomics; GC-TOFMS; UPLC-QTOFMS; fatty acids; tricarboxylic acid intermediates; amino acids; carbohydrate metabolomics; GC-TOFMS; UPLC-QTOFMS; fatty acids; tricarboxylic acid intermediates; amino acids; carbohydrate
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Qian, L.; Zhao, A.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, T.; Zeisel, S.H.; Jia, W.; Cai, W. Metabolomic Approaches to Explore Chemical Diversity of Human Breast-Milk, Formula Milk and Bovine Milk. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2128.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top