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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2095; doi:10.3390/ijms17122095

Molecular Mechanisms and Translational Therapies for Human Epidermal Receptor 2 Positive Breast Cancer

1,2,†
,
1,2,†
,
1,†
,
1,2,3
,
1
,
1
,
1
,
1,2,* and 1,2,*
1
Institute for Advancing Translational Medicine in Bone & Joint Diseases, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong Baptist University (HKBU), Hong Kong 999077, China
2
Institute of Precision Medicine and Innovative Drug Discovery, HKBU (Haimen) Institute of Science and Technology (IST), Haimen 226133, China
3
The State Key Laboratory Base of Novel Functional Materials and Preparation Science, Faculty of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Genxi Li
Received: 5 October 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 1 December 2016 / Published: 14 December 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3208 KB, uploaded 14 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. Human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2) positive breast cancer (HER2+ BC) is the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer, with poor prognosis and a high rate of recurrence. About one third of breast cancer is HER2+ BC with significantly high expression level of HER2 protein compared to other subtypes. Therefore, HER2 is an important biomarker and an ideal target for developing therapeutic strategies for the treatment HER2+ BC. In this review, HER2 structure and physiological and pathological roles in HER2+ BC are discussed. Two diagnostic tests, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), for evaluating HER2 expression levels are briefly introduced. The current mainstay targeted therapies for HER2+ BC include monoclonal antibodies, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibody–drug conjugates (ADC) and other emerging anti-HER2 agents. In clinical practice, combination therapies are commonly adopted in order to achieve synergistic drug response. This review will help to better understand the molecular mechanism of HER2+ BC and further facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic strategies against HER2+ BC. View Full-Text
Keywords: molecular mechanism; translational therapy; HER2 positive breast cancer; diagnostic tests; monoclonal antibodies; small molecular inhibitors; antibody–drug conjugates molecular mechanism; translational therapy; HER2 positive breast cancer; diagnostic tests; monoclonal antibodies; small molecular inhibitors; antibody–drug conjugates
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Lv, Q.; Meng, Z.; Yu, Y.; Jiang, F.; Guan, D.; Liang, C.; Zhou, J.; Lu, A.; Zhang, G. Molecular Mechanisms and Translational Therapies for Human Epidermal Receptor 2 Positive Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2095.

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