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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2062; doi:10.3390/ijms17122062

Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Gene Polymorphisms with Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures (OVCFs) in Postmenopausal Women

1
Department of Biomedical Science, College of Life Science, CHA University, Seongnam 13488, Korea
2
Department of Orthopedics, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 13496, Korea
3
Department of Neurosurgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam 13496, Korea
4
Department of Neurosurgery, Konkuk University Chungju Hospital, Chungju 27376, Korea
5
Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, CHA University, Seoul 06135, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stephen A. Bustin
Received: 15 October 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 4 December 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Abstract

Osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are strongly associated with mortality and morbidity, both in developing and developed countries. Menopause accelerates bone loss due to estrogen deficiency and age-related linear bone loss. We investigated plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms in postmenopausal women with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). In this case-control study, 355 postmenopausal women were genotyped for the presence of PAI-1 gene polymorphisms −844A > G, −675 4G > 5G, 43G > A, 9785A > G, and 11053T > G. Genetic polymorphisms of PAI-1 were analyzed by the polymerization chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism assay, and their association with disease status and folate and homocysteine levels was determined in 158 OVCF patients and 197 control subjects. The PAI-1 −675 5G5G (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 3.302; p = 0.017) and 43GA + AA (AOR, 2.087; p = 0.042) genotype frequencies showed significant association with the increased prevalence of OVCFs in postmenopausal women. In addition, we performed gene–environment interaction studies and demonstrated an association between PAI-1 gene polymorphisms and OVCF prevalence. Our novel finding is the identification of several PAI-1 genetic variants that increase susceptibility to OVCF. Our findings suggest that polymorphisms in PAI-1 may contribute to OVCF, and that they can be developed as biomarkers for evaluating OVCF risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: polymorphism; osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures; PAI-1; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; osteoporosis polymorphism; osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures; PAI-1; plasminogen activator inhibitor-1; osteoporosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.O.; Han, S.H.; Lee, Y.H.; Ahn, T.K.; Lim, J.J.; Chung, Y.S.; Shin, D.E.; Lee, W.S.; Han, I.B.; Kim, N.K. Association of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) Gene Polymorphisms with Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures (OVCFs) in Postmenopausal Women. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2062.

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