Toll Like Receptor 2, 4, and 9 Signaling Promotes Autoregulative Tumor Cell Growth and VEGF/PDGF Expression in Human Pancreatic Cancer
AbstractToll like receptor (TLR) signaling has been suggested to play an important role in the inflammatory microenvironment of solid tumors and through this inflammation-mediated tumor growth. Here, we studied the role of tumor cells in their process of self-maintaining TLR expression independent of inflammatory cells and cytokine milieu for autoregulative tumor growth signaling in pancreatic cancer. We analyzed the expression of TLR2, -4, and -9 in primary human cancers and their impact on tumor growth via induced activation in several established pancreatic cancers. TLR-stimulated pancreatic cancer cells were specifically investigated for activated signaling pathways of VEGF/PDGF and anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL expression as well as tumor cell growth. The primary pancreatic cancers and cell lines expressed TLR2, -4, and -9. TLR-specific stimulation resulted in activated MAP-kinase signaling, most likely via autoregulative stimulation of demonstrated TLR-induced VEGF and PDGF expression. Moreover, TLR activation prompted the expression of Bcl-xL and has been demonstrated for the first time to induce tumor cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer. These findings strongly suggest that pancreatic cancer cells use specific Toll like receptor signaling to promote tumor cell proliferation and emphasize the particular role of TLR2, -4, and -9 in this autoregulative process of tumor cell activation and proliferation in pancreatic cancer. View Full-Text
Scifeed alert for new publicationsNever miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
- Get alerts for new papers matching your research
- Find out the new papers from selected authors
- Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
- Define your Scifeed now
Grimmig, T.; Moench, R.; Kreckel, J.; Haack, S.; Rueckert, F.; Rehder, R.; Tripathi, S.; Ribas, C.; Chandraker, A.; Germer, C.T.; Gasser, M.; Waaga-Gasser, A.M. Toll Like Receptor 2, 4, and 9 Signaling Promotes Autoregulative Tumor Cell Growth and VEGF/PDGF Expression in Human Pancreatic Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2060.
Grimmig T, Moench R, Kreckel J, Haack S, Rueckert F, Rehder R, Tripathi S, Ribas C, Chandraker A, Germer CT, Gasser M, Waaga-Gasser AM. Toll Like Receptor 2, 4, and 9 Signaling Promotes Autoregulative Tumor Cell Growth and VEGF/PDGF Expression in Human Pancreatic Cancer. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(12):2060.Chicago/Turabian Style
Grimmig, Tanja; Moench, Romana; Kreckel, Jennifer; Haack, Stephanie; Rueckert, Felix; Rehder, Roberta; Tripathi, Sudipta; Ribas, Carmen; Chandraker, Anil; Germer, Christoph T.; Gasser, Martin; Waaga-Gasser, Ana M. 2016. "Toll Like Receptor 2, 4, and 9 Signaling Promotes Autoregulative Tumor Cell Growth and VEGF/PDGF Expression in Human Pancreatic Cancer." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 12: 2060.
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.