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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 2027; doi:10.3390/ijms17122027

New Electrochemically-Modified Carbon Paste Inclusion β-Cyclodextrin and Carbon Nanotubes Sensors for Quantification of Dorzolamide Hydrochloride

1
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 22452, Riyadh 11495, Saudi Arabia
2
General Administration and Medical Affairs, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Deepak Pant, Andrea Schievano and Genxi Li
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 29 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioelectrochemical Systems)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2066 KB, uploaded 2 December 2016]   |  

Abstract

The present article introduces a new approach to fabricate carbon paste sensors, including carbon paste, modified carbon paste inclusion β-cyclodextrin, and carbon nanotubes for the quantification of dorzolamide hydrochloride (DRZ). This study is mainly based on the construction of three different carbon paste sensors by the incorporation of DRZ with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) to form dorzolamide-phosphotungstate (DRZ-PT) as an electroactive material in the presence of the solvent mediator ortho-nitrophenyloctyl ether (o-NPOE). The fabricated conventional carbon paste sensor (sensor I), as well as the other modified carbon paste sensors using β-cyclodextrin (sensor II) and carbon nanotubes (sensor III), have been investigated. The sensors displayed Nernstian responses of 55.4 ± 0.6, 56.4 ± 0.4 and 58.1 ± 0.2 mV·decade−1 over concentration ranges of 1.0 × 10−5–1.0 × 10−2, 1.0 × 10−6–1.0 × 10−2, and 5.0 × 10−8–1.0 × 10−2 mol·L−1 with lower detection limits of 5.0 × 10−6, 5.0 × 10−7, and 2.5 × 10−9 mol·L−1 for sensors I, II, and III, respectively. The critical performance of the developed sensors was checked with respect to the effect of various parameters, including pH, selectivity, response time, linear concentration relationship, lifespan, etc. Method validation was applied according to the international conference on harmonisation of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use ICH guidelines. The developed sensors were employed for the determination of DRZ in its bulk and dosage forms, as well as bio-samples. The observed data were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained from other published methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: dorzolamine hydrochloride; potentiometric determination; carbon paste sensor; modified carbon nanotubes sensor; 2-hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin dorzolamine hydrochloride; potentiometric determination; carbon paste sensor; modified carbon nanotubes sensor; 2-hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alarfaj, N.A.; El-Tohamy, M.F. New Electrochemically-Modified Carbon Paste Inclusion β-Cyclodextrin and Carbon Nanotubes Sensors for Quantification of Dorzolamide Hydrochloride. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2027.

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