Dysregulated Homeostasis of Acetylcholine Levels in Immune Cells of RR-Multiple Sclerosis Patients
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Acetylcholine (ACh) contributes to the modulation of central and peripheral inflammation. We studied the homeostasis of the cholinergic system in relation to cytokine levels in immune cells and sera of relapsing remitting-MS (RR-MS) patients. We demonstrated that lower ACh levels in serum of RR-MS patients were inversely correlated with the increased activity of the hydrolyzing enzymes acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Interestingly, the expression of the ACh biosynthetic enzyme and the protein carriers involved in non-vesicular ACh release were found overexpressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of MS patients. The inflammatory state of the MS patients was confirmed by increased levels of TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40, IL-18. The lower circulating ACh levels in sera of MS patients are dependent on the higher activity of cholinergic hydrolyzing enzymes. The smaller ratio of ACh to TNFα, IL-12/IL-23p40 and IL-18 in MS patients, with respect to healthy donors (HD), is indicative of an inflammatory environment probably related to the alteration of cholinergic system homeostasis. View Full-Text
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Di Bari, M.; Reale, M.; Di Nicola, M.; Orlando, V.; Galizia, S.; Porfilio, I.; Costantini, E.; D’Angelo, C.; Ruggieri, S.; Biagioni, S.; Gasperini, C.; Tata, A.M. Dysregulated Homeostasis of Acetylcholine Levels in Immune Cells of RR-Multiple Sclerosis Patients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 2009.
Di Bari M, Reale M, Di Nicola M, Orlando V, Galizia S, Porfilio I, Costantini E, D’Angelo C, Ruggieri S, Biagioni S, Gasperini C, Tata AM. Dysregulated Homeostasis of Acetylcholine Levels in Immune Cells of RR-Multiple Sclerosis Patients. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2016; 17(12):2009.Chicago/Turabian Style
Di Bari, Maria; Reale, Marcella; Di Nicola, Marta; Orlando, Viviana; Galizia, Sabrina; Porfilio, Italo; Costantini, Erica; D’Angelo, Chiara; Ruggieri, Serena; Biagioni, Stefano; Gasperini, Claudio; Tata, Ada M. 2016. "Dysregulated Homeostasis of Acetylcholine Levels in Immune Cells of RR-Multiple Sclerosis Patients." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 17, no. 12: 2009.
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