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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(12), 1969; doi:10.3390/ijms17121969

Effects of Glycosylation on the Enzymatic Activity and Mechanisms of Proteases

Structural Biology Group, Faculty of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, Billrothstrasse 11, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
Academic Editor: Cheorl-Ho Kim
Received: 30 July 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 10 November 2016 / Published: 25 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycan–Receptor Interaction)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [6791 KB, uploaded 25 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

Posttranslational modifications are an important feature of most proteases in higher organisms, such as the conversion of inactive zymogens into active proteases. To date, little information is available on the role of glycosylation and functional implications for secreted proteases. Besides a stabilizing effect and protection against proteolysis, several proteases show a significant influence of glycosylation on the catalytic activity. Glycans can alter the substrate recognition, the specificity and binding affinity, as well as the turnover rates. However, there is currently no known general pattern, since glycosylation can have both stimulating and inhibiting effects on activity. Thus, a comparative analysis of individual cases with sufficient enzyme kinetic and structural data is a first approach to describe mechanistic principles that govern the effects of glycosylation on the function of proteases. The understanding of glycan functions becomes highly significant in proteomic and glycomic studies, which demonstrated that cancer-associated proteases, such as kallikrein-related peptidase 3, exhibit strongly altered glycosylation patterns in pathological cases. Such findings can contribute to a variety of future biomedical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: secreted protease; sequon; N-glycosylation; O-glycosylation; core glycan; enzyme kinetics; substrate recognition; flexible loops; Michaelis constant; turnover number secreted protease; sequon; N-glycosylation; O-glycosylation; core glycan; enzyme kinetics; substrate recognition; flexible loops; Michaelis constant; turnover number
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Goettig, P. Effects of Glycosylation on the Enzymatic Activity and Mechanisms of Proteases. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1969.

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