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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1952; doi:10.3390/ijms17111952

Calcium Dyshomeostasis in Tubular Aggregate Myopathy

1
Department of Genome Medicine Development, Medical Genome Center, National Center of Neurology and Neuropsychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8551, Japan
2
Department of Neuromuscular Research, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Neuropsychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo 187-8502, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: ChulHee Kang
Received: 3 October 2016 / Revised: 15 November 2016 / Accepted: 15 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Regulation and Sensing)
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Abstract

Calcium is a crucial mediator of cell signaling in skeletal muscles for basic cellular functions and specific functions, including contraction, fiber-type differentiation and energy production. The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is an organelle that provides a large supply of intracellular Ca2+ in myofibers. Upon excitation, it releases Ca2+ into the cytosol, inducing contraction of myofibrils. During relaxation, it takes up cytosolic Ca2+ to terminate the contraction. During exercise, Ca2+ is cycled between the cytosol and the SR through a system by which the Ca2+ pool in the SR is restored by uptake of extracellular Ca2+ via a specific channel on the plasma membrane. This channel is called the store-operated Ca2+ channel or the Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel. It is activated by depletion of the Ca2+ store in the SR by coordination of two main molecules: stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) and calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (ORAI1). Recently, myopathies with a dominant mutation in these genes have been reported and the pathogenic mechanism of such diseases have been proposed. This review overviews the calcium signaling in skeletal muscles and role of store-operated Ca2+ entry in calcium homeostasis. Finally, we discuss the phenotypes and the pathomechanism of myopathies caused by mutations in the STIM1 and ORAI1 genes. View Full-Text
Keywords: tubular aggregate myopathy; skeletal muscle; severe combined immunodeficiency; STIM1; ORAI1; SOCE; calcium tubular aggregate myopathy; skeletal muscle; severe combined immunodeficiency; STIM1; ORAI1; SOCE; calcium
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Lee, J.-M.; Noguchi, S. Calcium Dyshomeostasis in Tubular Aggregate Myopathy. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1952.

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