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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1947; doi:10.3390/ijms17111947

Effects of Luteolin and Quercetin in Combination with Some Conventional Antibiotics against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

1
Department of Microbiology, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat 26000, Pakistan
2
Department of Pharmacy, Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University, Sheringal 18000, Pakistan
3
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
4
Department of Microbiology & Biotechnology, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
5
Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah 21955, Saudi Arabia
6
Department of Pharmacy, Sarhad University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
7
Department of Pharmacology, Khyber Medical University Institute of Medical Sciences, Kohat 26000, Pakistan
8
Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Milan State University, 20133 Milan, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maurizio Battino and Francesca Giampieri
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1379 KB, uploaded 23 November 2016]   |  

Abstract

The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of flavonoids luteolin (L) and quercetin + luteolin (Q + L) in combination with commonly used antibacterial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) clinical isolates and S. aureus (ATCC 43300). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of L and Q + L, as well as the MICs of flavonoids in combination with antibiotics were determined and results showed an increased activity of flavonoids with antibiotics. The synergistic, additive, or antagonistic relationships between flavonoids (L and Q + L) and antibiotics were also evaluated, and additive and synergistic effects were observed for some antibiotic + flavonoid combinations. In addition, some combinations were also found to damage the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, as assessed through potassium leakage assay. The effects of flavonoids and flavonoids + antibiotics on mecA gene mutations were also tested, and no functional variation was detected in the coding region. View Full-Text
Keywords: flavonoids; antibiotic resistance; MRSA; combination therapy; synergism; phytochemicals flavonoids; antibiotic resistance; MRSA; combination therapy; synergism; phytochemicals
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Usman Amin, M.; Khurram, M.; Khan, T.A.; Faidah, H.S.; Ullah Shah, Z.; Ur Rahman, S.; Haseeb, A.; Ilyas, M.; Ullah, N.; Umar Khayam, S.M.; Iriti, M. Effects of Luteolin and Quercetin in Combination with Some Conventional Antibiotics against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1947.

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