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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1803; doi:10.3390/ijms17111803

The Expression and Clinical Outcome of pCHK2-Thr68 and pCDC25C-Ser216 in Breast Cancer

1
Department of Radiation Oncology, PLA Army General Hospital, Beijing 100700, China
2
Department of Oncology, Changhai Hospital, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, China
3
Department of Emergency, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, China
4
Radiologic Sciences and Respiratory Therapy Division, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
These authors contributed equally to the work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 2 July 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Molecular Oncology)
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Abstract

Checkpoint kinase 2 (CHK2) and cell division cycle 25C (CDC25C) are two proteins involved in the DNA damage response pathway, playing essential roles in maintaining genome integrity. As one of the major hallmarks of abnormal cellular division, genomic instability occurs in most cancers. In this study, we identified the functional expression of pCHK2-Thr68 and pCDC25C-Ser216 in breast cancer, as well as its association with breast cancer survival. Tissue microarray analysis using immunohistochemistry was constructed to identify the expression of pCHK2-Thr68 and pCDC25C-Ser216 in 292 female breast cancer patients. The relationship among protein expression, clinicopathological factors (e.g., human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER 2), tumor size, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification), and overall survival of the breast cancer tissues were analyzed using Pearson’s χ-square (χ2) test, Fisher’s exact test, multivariate logistic regression and Kaplan–Meier survival analysis. Significantly higher expressions of pCHK2-Thr68 and pCDC25C-Ser216 were observed in the nucleus of the breast cancer cells compared to the paracancerous tissue (pCHK2-Thr68, 20.38% vs. 0%; pCDC25C-Ser216, 82.26% vs. 24.24%). The expression of pCHK2-Thr68 and pCDC25C-Ser216 in breast cancer showed a positive linear correlation (p = 0.026). High expression of pCHK2-Thr68 was associated with decreased patient survival (p = 0.001), but was not an independent prognostic factor. Our results suggest that pCHK2-Thr68 and pCDC25C-Ser216 play important roles in breast cancer and may be potential treatment targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: pCHK2-Thr68; pCDC25C-Ser216; immunohistochemistry; breast cancer; genomic instability pCHK2-Thr68; pCDC25C-Ser216; immunohistochemistry; breast cancer; genomic instability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jiang, H.; Wang, B.; Zhang, F.; Qian, Y.; Chuang, C.-C.; Ying, M.; Wang, Y.; Zuo, L. The Expression and Clinical Outcome of pCHK2-Thr68 and pCDC25C-Ser216 in Breast Cancer. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1803.

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