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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1794; doi:10.3390/ijms17111794

Comparative Proteomic and Physiological Analysis Reveals the Variation Mechanisms of Leaf Coloration and Carbon Fixation in a Xantha Mutant of Ginkgo biloba L.

1
Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037, China
2
The Jiangsu Provincial Platform for Conservation and Utilization of Agricultural Germplasm, Nanjing 210037, China
3
Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210037, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Setsuko Komatsu
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 16 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Proteomic Research)
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Abstract

Yellow-green leaf mutants are common in higher plants, and these non-lethal chlorophyll-deficient mutants are ideal materials for research on photosynthesis and plant development. A novel xantha mutant of Ginkgo biloba displaying yellow-colour leaves (YL) and green-colour leaves (GL) was identified in this study. The chlorophyll content of YL was remarkably lower than that in GL. The chloroplast ultrastructure revealed that YL had less dense thylakoid lamellae, a looser structure and fewer starch grains than GL. Analysis of the photosynthetic characteristics revealed that YL had decreased photosynthetic activity with significantly high nonphotochemical quenching. To explain these phenomena, we analysed the proteomic differences in leaves and chloroplasts between YL and GL of ginkgo using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. In total, 89 differential proteins were successfully identified, 82 of which were assigned functions in nine metabolic pathways and cellular processes. Among them, proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, carbohydrate/energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and protein metabolism were greatly enriched, indicating a good correlation between differentially accumulated proteins and physiological changes in leaves. The identifications of these differentially accumulated proteins indicates the presence of a specific different metabolic network in YL and suggests that YL possess slower chloroplast development, weaker photosynthesis, and a less abundant energy supply than GL. These studies provide insights into the mechanism of molecular regulation of leaf colour variation in YL mutants. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ginkgo biloba L.; xantha mutant; comparative proteomics; chloroplast; photosynthesis Ginkgo biloba L.; xantha mutant; comparative proteomics; chloroplast; photosynthesis
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Liu, X.; Yu, W.; Wang, G.; Cao, F.; Cai, J.; Wang, H. Comparative Proteomic and Physiological Analysis Reveals the Variation Mechanisms of Leaf Coloration and Carbon Fixation in a Xantha Mutant of Ginkgo biloba L.. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1794.

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