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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1785; doi:10.3390/ijms17111785

The Impact of Vitamin E and Other Fat-Soluble Vitamins on Alzheimer´s Disease

1,2,3,†,* , 1,†
and
1,2,3
1
Experimental Neurology, Saarland University, Kirrberger Str. 1, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany
2
Neurodegeneration and Neurobiology, Saarland University, Kirrberger Str. 1, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany
3
Deutsches Institut für DemenzPrävention (DIDP), Saarland University, Kirrberger Str. 1, 66421 Homburg/Saar, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rafat A. Siddiqui
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 14 October 2016 / Accepted: 20 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tocopherols and Tocotrienols: Metabolism and Properties)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1124 KB, uploaded 26 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly population, currently affecting 46 million people worldwide. Histopathologically, the disease is characterized by the occurrence of extracellular amyloid plaques composed of aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles containing the microtubule-associated protein tau. Aβ peptides are derived from the sequential processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by enzymes called secretases, which are strongly influenced by the lipid environment. Several vitamins have been reported to be reduced in the plasma/serum of AD-affected individuals indicating they have an impact on AD pathogenesis. In this review we focus on vitamin E and the other lipophilic vitamins A, D, and K, and summarize the current knowledge about their status in AD patients, their impact on cognitive functions and AD risk, as well as their influence on the molecular mechanisms of AD. The vitamins might affect the generation and clearance of Aβ both by direct effects and indirectly by altering the cellular lipid homeostasis. Additionally, vitamins A, D, E, and K are reported to influence further mechanisms discussed to be involved in AD pathogenesis, e.g., Aβ-aggregation, Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory processes, as summarized in this article. View Full-Text
Keywords: vitamin E; tocopherol; tocotrienol; Alzheimer´s disease; vitamin A; vitamin D; vitamin K; lipids vitamin E; tocopherol; tocotrienol; Alzheimer´s disease; vitamin A; vitamin D; vitamin K; lipids
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Grimm, M.O.W.; Mett, J.; Hartmann, T. The Impact of Vitamin E and Other Fat-Soluble Vitamins on Alzheimer´s Disease. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1785.

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