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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(11), 1784; doi:10.3390/ijms17111784

Prostate Cancer Detection and Prognosis: From Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) to Exosomal Biomarkers

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics (CDB), Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, C/Villarroel, 170, 08036 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
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Academic Editor: Carsten Stephan
Received: 13 September 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 14 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnostic, Prognostic and Predictive Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer)
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Abstract

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) remains the most used biomarker in the management of early prostate cancer (PCa), in spite of the problems related to false positive results and overdiagnosis. New biomarkers have been proposed in recent years with the aim of increasing specificity and distinguishing aggressive from non-aggressive PCa. The emerging role of the prostate health index and the 4Kscore is reviewed in this article. Both are blood-based tests related to the aggressiveness of the tumor, which provide the risk of suffering PCa and avoiding negative biopsies. Furthermore, the use of urine has emerged as a non-invasive way to identify new biomarkers in recent years, including the PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene. Available results about the PCA3 score showed its usefulness to decide the repetition of biopsy in patients with a previous negative result, although its relationship with the aggressiveness of the tumor is controversial. More recently, aberrant microRNA expression in PCa has been reported by different authors. Preliminary results suggest the utility of circulating and urinary microRNAs in the detection and prognosis of PCa. Although several of these new biomarkers have been recommended by different guidelines, large prospective and comparative studies are necessary to establish their value in PCa detection and prognosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: prostate cancer detection; biomarker; prostate specific antigen (PSA); prostate health index; 4Kscore; PCA3 score; miRNAs; exosomal biomarkers prostate cancer detection; biomarker; prostate specific antigen (PSA); prostate health index; 4Kscore; PCA3 score; miRNAs; exosomal biomarkers
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Filella, X.; Foj, L. Prostate Cancer Detection and Prognosis: From Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) to Exosomal Biomarkers. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1784.

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