Next Article in Journal
Screening the Toxicity of Selected Personal Care Products Using Embryo Bioassays: 4-MBC, Propylparaben and Triclocarban
Next Article in Special Issue
Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions: The Pharmacogenomics from Research to Clinical Implementation
Previous Article in Journal
Role of Intracellular Lipid Logistics in the Preferential Usage of Very Long Chain-Ceramides in Glucosylceramide
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Personalized Approach in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: The Current Status of Disease Modifying Therapies (DMTs) and Future Perspectives
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1760; doi:10.3390/ijms17101760

Towards Stratified Medicine in Plasma Cell Myeloma

Northern Ireland Centre for Stratified Medicine, Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Ulster University, C-TRIC Building, Altnagelvin Area Hospital, Glenshane Road, Derry/Londonderry BT47 6SB, Northern Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 24 July 2016 / Revised: 26 September 2016 / Accepted: 5 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precision Medicine—From Bench to Bedside)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [281 KB, uploaded 21 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Plasma cell myeloma is a clinically heterogeneous malignancy accounting for approximately one to 2% of newly diagnosed cases of cancer worldwide. Treatment options, in addition to long-established cytotoxic drugs, include autologous stem cell transplant, immune modulators, proteasome inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, plus further targeted therapies currently in clinical trials. Whilst treatment decisions are mostly based on a patient’s age, fitness, including the presence of co-morbidities, and tumour burden, significant scope exists for better risk stratification, sub-classification of disease, and predictors of response to specific therapies. Clinical staging, recurring acquired cytogenetic aberrations, and serum biomarkers such as β-2 microglobulin, and free light chains are in widespread use but often fail to predict the disease progression or inform treatment decision making. Recent scientific advances have provided considerable insight into the biology of myeloma. For example, gene expression profiling is already making a contribution to enhanced understanding of the biology of the disease whilst Next Generation Sequencing has revealed great genomic complexity and heterogeneity. Pathways involved in the oncogenesis, proliferation of the tumour and its resistance to apoptosis are being unravelled. Furthermore, knowledge of the tumour cell surface and its interactions with bystander cells and the bone marrow stroma enhance this understanding and provide novel targets for cell and antibody-based therapies. This review will discuss the development in understanding of the biology of the tumour cell and its environment in the bone marrow, the implementation of new therapeutic options contributing to significantly improved outcomes, and the progression towards more personalised medicine in this disorder. View Full-Text
Keywords: plasma cell myeloma; multiple myeloma; plasma cell dyscrasias; personalised medicine; flow cytometry; Next Generation Sequencing; proteasome inhibitors; immunomodulatory drugs; microRNAs plasma cell myeloma; multiple myeloma; plasma cell dyscrasias; personalised medicine; flow cytometry; Next Generation Sequencing; proteasome inhibitors; immunomodulatory drugs; microRNAs
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Egan, P.; Drain, S.; Conway, C.; Bjourson, A.J.; Alexander, H.D. Towards Stratified Medicine in Plasma Cell Myeloma. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1760.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top