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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1733; doi:10.3390/ijms17101733

The Molecular and Cellular Effect of Homocysteine Metabolism Imbalance on Human Health

1
Biomedical Center Martin, Department of Molecular Medicine, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 03601 Martin, Slovakia
2
Department of Medical Biochemistry, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 03601 Martin, Slovakia
3
Biomedical Center Martin, Department of Neurosciences, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 03601 Martin, Slovakia
4
Department of Public Health, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 03601 Martin, Slovakia
5
Department of Medical Biology, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, 03601 Martin, Slovakia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Katalin Prokai-Tatrai
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 12 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [685 KB, uploaded 20 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing non-proteinogenic amino acid derived in methionine metabolism. The increased level of Hcy in plasma, hyperhomocysteinemia, is considered to be an independent risk factor for cardio and cerebrovascular diseases. However, it is still not clear if Hcy is a marker or a causative agent of diseases. More and more research data suggest that Hcy is an important indicator for overall health status. This review represents the current understanding of molecular mechanism of Hcy metabolism and its link to hyperhomocysteinemia-related pathologies in humans. The aberrant Hcy metabolism could lead to the redox imbalance and oxidative stress resulting in elevated protein, nucleic acid and carbohydrate oxidation and lipoperoxidation, products known to be involved in cytotoxicity. Additionally, we examine the role of Hcy in thiolation of proteins, which results in their molecular and functional modifications. We also highlight the relationship between the imbalance in Hcy metabolism and pathogenesis of diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, neurological and psychiatric disorders, chronic kidney disease, bone tissue damages, gastrointestinal disorders, cancer, and congenital defects. View Full-Text
Keywords: homocysteine metabolism; hyperhomocysteimenia; cellular toxicity; oxidative stress; disease homocysteine metabolism; hyperhomocysteimenia; cellular toxicity; oxidative stress; disease
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Škovierová, H.; Vidomanová, E.; Mahmood, S.; Sopková, J.; Drgová, A.; Červeňová, T.; Halašová, E.; Lehotský, J. The Molecular and Cellular Effect of Homocysteine Metabolism Imbalance on Human Health. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1733.

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