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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1685; doi:10.3390/ijms17101685

Preparation of Low Molecular Weight Chondroitin Sulfates, Screening of a High Anti-Complement Capacity of Low Molecular Weight Chondroitin Sulfate and Its Biological Activity Studies in Attenuating Osteoarthritis

1
Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology of Natural Products (Ministry of Education), Institute of Biochemical and Biotechnological Drug, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, No. 44 Wenhuaxi Road, Jinan 250012, China
2
National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250012, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 17 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Abstract

Chondroitin sulfate (CS) plays important roles in the complement system. However, the CS structure is complicated due to different sources and the number and positions of sulfate groups. The objective of this study was to prepare different low molecular weight chondroitin sulfates (LMWCSs) and to investigate the biological activity in anti-complement capacity. A series of LMWCSs was prepared from different sources and characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering (SEC-MALLS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Hemolytic, anti-complement 3 deposition capacity and cell viability assays were carried out to investigate the biological activities in vitro. The results showed that LMWCS prepared from shark cartilage with the oxidative degradation method (LMWCS-S-O) had the best anti-complement capacity. LMWCS-S-O could inhibit the alternative pathway of the complement system and protect chondrocytes from cell death. The attenuating effect of LMWCS-S-O on Osteoarthritis (OA) was investigated by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) model in vivo. Functional wind-up, histological and C5b-9 analyses were used to evaluate the treatment effect on the OA model. In vivo results showed that LMWCS-S-O could attenuate OA. LMWCS-S-O with a high content of ΔDi-2,6diS and ΔDi-6S could be used for attenuating OA through regulating the complement system. View Full-Text
Keywords: chondroitin sulfate; anti-complement; osteoarthritis; depolymerization chondroitin sulfate; anti-complement; osteoarthritis; depolymerization
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Li, L.; Li, Y.; Feng, D.; Xu, L.; Yin, F.; Zang, H.; Liu, C.; Wang, F. Preparation of Low Molecular Weight Chondroitin Sulfates, Screening of a High Anti-Complement Capacity of Low Molecular Weight Chondroitin Sulfate and Its Biological Activity Studies in Attenuating Osteoarthritis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1685.

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