Next Article in Journal
ns-μs Time-Resolved Step-Scan FTIR of ba3 Oxidoreductase from Thermus thermophilus: Protonic Connectivity of w941-w946-w927
Previous Article in Journal
Longitudinal Claudin Gene Expression Analyses in Canine Mammary Tissues and Thereof Derived Primary Cultures and Cell Lines
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effects of Hormone Therapy on Oxidative Stress in Postmenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1658; doi:10.3390/ijms17101658

Fruit Antioxidants during Vinegar Processing: Changes in Content and in Vitro Bio-Accessibility

1
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul, Turkey
2
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, Merkez, 53100 Rize, Turkey
3
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Okan University, Akfirat-Tuzla, 34959 Istanbul, Turkey
4
Plant Research International, Wageningen UR, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 19 August 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 21 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macro- and Micro-nutrient Antioxidants)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [229 KB, uploaded 29 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Background: Vinegars based on fruit juices could conserve part of the health-associated compounds present in the fruits. However, in general very limited knowledge exists on the consequences of vinegar-making on different antioxidant compounds from fruit. In this study vinegars derived from apple and grape are studied. Methods: A number of steps, starting from the fermentation of the fruit juices to the formation of the final vinegars, were studied from an industrial vinegar process. The effect of each of the vinegar processing steps on content of antioxidants, phenolic compounds and flavonoids was studied, by spectroscopic methods and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results: The major observation was that spectrophotometric methods indicate a strong loss of antioxidant phenolic compounds during the transition from fruit wine to fruit vinegar. A targeted HPLC analysis indicates that metabolites such as gallic acid are lost in later stages of the vinegar process. Conclusion: The major conclusion of this work is that major changes occur in phenolic compounds during vinegar making. An untargeted metabolite analysis should be used to reveal these changes in more detail. In addition, the effect of vinegar processing on bio-accessibility of phenolic compounds was investigated by mimicking the digestive tract in an in vitro set up. This study is meant to provide insight into the potential of vinegar as a source of health-related compounds from fruit. View Full-Text
Keywords: vinegar; apple; grape; antioxidant; polyphenol vinegar; apple; grape; antioxidant; polyphenol
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Bakir, S.; Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, J.; Capanoglu, E. Fruit Antioxidants during Vinegar Processing: Changes in Content and in Vitro Bio-Accessibility. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1658.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top