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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1643; doi:10.3390/ijms17101643

Dissecting Candida albicans Infection from the Perspective of C. albicans Virulence and Omics Approaches on Host–Pathogen Interaction: A Review

1
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Patrick C.Y. Woo
Received: 15 July 2016 / Revised: 15 September 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Microbe Interaction)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [264 KB, uploaded 18 October 2016]

Abstract

Candida bloodstream infections remain the most frequent life-threatening fungal disease, with Candida albicans accounting for 70% to 80% of the Candida isolates recovered from infected patients. In nature, Candida species are part of the normal commensal flora in mammalian hosts. However, they can transform into pathogens once the host immune system is weakened or breached. More recently, mortality attributed to Candida infections has continued to increase due to both inherent and acquired drug resistance in Candida, the inefficacy of the available antifungal drugs, tedious diagnostic procedures, and a rising number of immunocompromised patients. Adoption of animal models, viz. minihosts, mice, and zebrafish, has brought us closer to unraveling the pathogenesis and complexity of Candida infection in human hosts, leading towards the discovery of biomarkers and identification of potential therapeutic agents. In addition, the advancement of omics technologies offers a holistic view of the Candida-host interaction in a non-targeted and non-biased manner. Hence, in this review, we seek to summarize past and present milestone findings on C. albicans virulence, adoption of animal models in the study of C. albicans infection, and the application of omics technologies in the study of Candida–host interaction. A profound understanding of the interaction between host defense and pathogenesis is imperative for better design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies in future. View Full-Text
Keywords: omics; C. albicans; candidiasis; candida; host–pathogen interaction omics; C. albicans; candidiasis; candida; host–pathogen interaction
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chin, V.K.; Lee, T.Y.; Rusliza, B.; Chong, P.P. Dissecting Candida albicans Infection from the Perspective of C. albicans Virulence and Omics Approaches on Host–Pathogen Interaction: A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1643.

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