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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(10), 1635; doi:10.3390/ijms17101635

Interactions between Two Different G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Reproductive Hormone-Producing Cells: The Role of PACAP and Its Receptor PAC1R

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Shimane University, 89-1 Enya-cho, Izumo, Shimane 693-8501, Japan
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Academic Editor: Kathleen Van Craenenbroeck
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 10 September 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 26 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling and Regulation)
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Abstract

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropins are indispensable hormones for maintaining female reproductive functions. In a similar manner to other endocrine hormones, GnRH and gonadotropins are controlled by their principle regulators. Although it has been previously established that GnRH regulates the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)—both gonadotropins—from pituitary gonadotrophs, it has recently become clear that hypothalamic GnRH is under the control of hypothalamic kisspeptin. Prolactin, which is also known as luteotropic hormone and is released from pituitary lactotrophs, stimulates milk production in mammals. Prolactin is also regulated by hypothalamic factors, and it is thought that prolactin synthesis and release are principally under inhibitory control by dopamine through the dopamine D2 receptor. In addition, although it remains unknown whether it is a physiological regulator, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a strong secretagogue for prolactin. Thus, GnRH, LH and FSH, and prolactin are mainly regulated by hypothalamic kisspeptin, GnRH, and TRH, respectively. However, the synthesis and release of these hormones is also modulated by other neuropeptides in the hypothalamus. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a hypothalamic peptide that was first isolated from sheep hypothalamic extracts based on its ability to stimulate cAMP production in anterior pituitary cells. PACAP acts on GnRH neurons and pituitary gonadotrophs and lactotrophs, resulting in the modulation of their hormone producing/secreting functions. Furthermore, the presence of the PACAP type 1 receptor (PAC1R) has been demonstrated in these cells. We have examined how PACAP and PAC1R affect GnRH- and pituitary hormone-secreting cells and interact with their principle regulators. In this review, we describe our understanding of the role of PACAP and PAC1R in the regulation of GnRH neurons, gonadotrophs, and lactotrophs, which are regulated mainly by kisspeptin, GnRH, and TRH, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: kisspeptin; GnRH; TRH; PACAP kisspeptin; GnRH; TRH; PACAP
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kanasaki, H.; Oride, A.; Hara, T.; Mijiddorj, T.; Sukhbaatar, U.; Kyo, S. Interactions between Two Different G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Reproductive Hormone-Producing Cells: The Role of PACAP and Its Receptor PAC1R. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 1635.

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