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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 90; doi:10.3390/ijms17010090

Function and Regulation of Heterotrimeric G Proteins during Chemotaxis

Department of Cell Biochemistry, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kathleen Van Craenenbroeck
Received: 28 November 2015 / Revised: 22 December 2015 / Accepted: 31 December 2015 / Published: 14 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling and Regulation)
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Abstract

Chemotaxis, or directional movement towards an extracellular gradient of chemicals, is necessary for processes as diverse as finding nutrients, the immune response, metastasis and wound healing. Activation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) is at the very base of the chemotactic signaling pathway. Chemotaxis starts with binding of the chemoattractant to GPCRs at the cell-surface, which finally leads to major changes in the cytoskeleton and directional cell movement towards the chemoattractant. Many chemotaxis pathways that are directly regulated by Gβγ have been identified and studied extensively; however, whether Gα is just a handle that regulates the release of Gβγ or whether Gα has its own set of distinct chemotactic effectors, is only beginning to be understood. In this review, we will discuss the different levels of regulation in GPCR signaling and the downstream pathways that are essential for proper chemotaxis. View Full-Text
Keywords: chemotaxis; G-protein coupled receptors; heterotrimeric G proteins; adaptation; non-canonical regulators; Gα effectors chemotaxis; G-protein coupled receptors; heterotrimeric G proteins; adaptation; non-canonical regulators; Gα effectors
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Kamp, M.E.; Liu, Y.; Kortholt, A. Function and Regulation of Heterotrimeric G Proteins during Chemotaxis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 90.

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