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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 54; doi:10.3390/ijms17010054

Effects of Iron-Oxide Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry on Uptake Kinetics and Cytotoxicity in CHO-K1 Cells

Department of Chemical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
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Academic Editors: Yuping Bao and Anna Cristina S. Samia
Received: 24 November 2015 / Revised: 21 December 2015 / Accepted: 23 December 2015 / Published: 31 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles)
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Abstract

Superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) show great promise for multiple applications in biomedicine. While a number of studies have examined their safety profile, the toxicity of these particles on reproductive organs remains uncertain. The goal of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of starch-coated, aminated, and PEGylated SPIONs on a cell line derived from Chinese Hamster ovaries (CHO-K1 cells). We evaluated the effect of particle diameter (50 and 100 nm) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain length (2k, 5k and 20k Da) on the cytotoxicity of SPIONs by investigating cell viability using the tetrazolium dye 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. The kinetics and extent of SPION uptake by CHO-K1 cells was also studied, as well as the resulting generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cell toxicity profiles of SPIONs correlated strongly with their cellular uptake kinetics, which was strongly dependent on surface properties of the particles. PEGylation caused a decrease in both uptake and cytotoxicity compared to aminated SPIONs. Interestingly, 2k Da PEG-modifed SPIONs displayed the lowest cellular uptake and cytotoxicity among all studied particles. These results emphasize the importance of surface coatings when engineering nanoparticles for biomedical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs); PEGylated nanoparticles; aminated nanoparticles; reproductive toxicity; nanotoxicity; uptake kinetics; ROS generation superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs); PEGylated nanoparticles; aminated nanoparticles; reproductive toxicity; nanotoxicity; uptake kinetics; ROS generation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hanot, C.C.; Choi, Y.S.; Anani, T.B.; Soundarrajan, D.; David, A.E. Effects of Iron-Oxide Nanoparticle Surface Chemistry on Uptake Kinetics and Cytotoxicity in CHO-K1 Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 54.

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