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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17(1), 103; doi:10.3390/ijms17010103

Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin

1
Institute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, University of Kiel, Hermann-Rodewald-Straße 6, D-24118 Kiel, Germany
2
School of Natural System, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan
3
Medical Photonics Research Center, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Handamachi 1-20-1, Higashi-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan
4
DSM Nutritional Products, P.O. Box 2676, 4002 Basel, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Esra Capanoglu
Received: 12 October 2015 / Revised: 5 January 2016 / Accepted: 8 January 2016 / Published: 14 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Macro- and Micro-nutrient Antioxidants)
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Abstract

Astaxanthin is a coloring agent which is used as a feed additive in aquaculture nutrition. Recently, potential health benefits of astaxanthin have been discussed which may be partly related to its free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. Our electron spin resonance (ESR) and spin trapping data suggest that synthetic astaxanthin is a potent free radical scavenger in terms of diphenylpicryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and galvinoxyl free radicals. Furthermore, astaxanthin dose-dependently quenched singlet oxygen as determined by photon counting. In addition to free radical scavenging and singlet oxygen quenching properties, astaxanthin induced the antioxidant enzyme paroxoanase-1, enhanced glutathione concentrations and prevented lipid peroxidation in cultured hepatocytes. Present results suggest that, beyond its coloring properties, synthetic astaxanthin exhibits free radical scavenging, singlet oxygen quenching, and antioxidant activities which could probably positively affect animal and human health. View Full-Text
Keywords: astaxanthin; free radical scavenging; antioxidant; electron spin resonance spectroscopy astaxanthin; free radical scavenging; antioxidant; electron spin resonance spectroscopy
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Dose, J.; Matsugo, S.; Yokokawa, H.; Koshida, Y.; Okazaki, S.; Seidel, U.; Eggersdorfer, M.; Rimbach, G.; Esatbeyoglu, T. Free Radical Scavenging and Cellular Antioxidant Properties of Astaxanthin. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2016, 17, 103.

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