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Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 22636-22661; doi:10.3390/ijms160922636

ω-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Diseases: Effects, Mechanisms and Dietary Relevance

Norwegian College of Fishery Science Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway
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Academic Editor: Charles Brennan
Received: 30 June 2015 / Revised: 1 September 2015 / Accepted: 9 September 2015 / Published: 18 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Health and Diseases)
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Abstract

ω-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) have, since the 1970s, been associated with beneficial health effects. They are, however, prone to lipid peroxidation due to their many double bonds. Lipid peroxidation is a process that may lead to increased oxidative stress, a condition associated with adverse health effects. Recently, conflicting evidence regarding the health benefits of intake of n-3 from seafood or n-3 supplements has emerged. The aim of this review was thus to examine recent literature regarding health aspects of n-3 FA intake from fish or n-3 supplements, and to discuss possible reasons for the conflicting findings. There is a broad consensus that fish and seafood are the optimal sources of n-3 FA and consumption of approximately 2–3 servings per week is recommended. The scientific evidence of benefits from n-3 supplementation has diminished over time, probably due to a general increase in seafood consumption and better pharmacological intervention and acute treatment of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). View Full-Text
Keywords: n-3 fatty acids; eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA); docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); lipid peroxidation; cardiovascular diseases; seafood; supplements n-3 fatty acids; eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA); docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); lipid peroxidation; cardiovascular diseases; seafood; supplements
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Maehre, H.K.; Jensen, I.-J.; Elvevoll, E.O.; Eilertsen, K.-E. ω-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Diseases: Effects, Mechanisms and Dietary Relevance. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 22636-22661.

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