Next Article in Journal
Adaptive Immune Responses in a Multiple Sclerosis Patient with Acute Varicella-Zoster Virus Reactivation during Treatment with Fingolimod
Previous Article in Journal
Isolation of Specific Genomic Regions and Identification of Their Associated Molecules by Engineered DNA-Binding Molecule-Mediated Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (enChIP) Using the CRISPR System and TAL Proteins
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16(9), 21813-21831; doi:10.3390/ijms160921813

Surface Properties of Squalene/Meibum Films and NMR Confirmation of Squalene in Tears

1
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria
2
Institute of Physical Chemistry "R. Kaischew"-BAS, Phase Formation, Crystals and Amorphous Materials Department, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
3
Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 602-0841, Japan
4
Department of Chemistry, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
5
Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40202, USA
6
Biointerfaces and Biomaterials Laboratory, Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, 1164 Sofia, Bulgaria
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jeffrey H. Boatright
Received: 3 August 2015 / Revised: 28 August 2015 / Accepted: 31 August 2015 / Published: 9 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4089 KB, uploaded 9 September 2015]   |  

Abstract

Squalene (SQ) possesses a wide range of pharmacological activities (antioxidant, drug carrier, detoxifier, hydrating, emollient) that can be of benefit to the ocular surface. It can come in contact with human meibum (hMGS; the most abundant component of the tear film lipid layer) as an endogenous tear lipid or from exogenous sources as eyelid sebum or pharmaceuticals. The aims of this study were to determine (i) if SQ is in tear lipids and (ii) its influence on the surface properties of hMGS films. Heteronuclear single quantum correlation NMR confirmed 7 mol % SQ in Schirmer’s strips extracts. The properties of SQ/hMGS pseudo-binary films at the air/water interface were studied with Langmuir surface balance, stress-relaxation dilatational rheology and Brewster angle microscopy. SQ does not possess surfactant properties. When mixed with hMGS squalene (i) localized over the layers’ thinner regions and (ii) did not affect the film pressure at high compression. Therefore, tear SQ is unlikely to instigate dry eye, and SQ can be used as a safe and “inert” ingredient in formulations to protect against dry eye. The layering of SQ over the thinner film regions in addition to its pharmacological properties could contribute to the protection of the ocular surface. View Full-Text
Keywords: Langmuir trough; meibum; NMR; sebum; squalene; tear film Langmuir trough; meibum; NMR; sebum; squalene; tear film
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ivanova, S.; Tonchev, V.; Yokoi, N.; Yappert, M.C.; Borchman, D.; Georgiev, G.A. Surface Properties of Squalene/Meibum Films and NMR Confirmation of Squalene in Tears. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2015, 16, 21813-21831.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Mol. Sci. EISSN 1422-0067 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top